Smriti Mukta Phalam

103. Parivedanam (Marriage of younger brother before the elder)

1. Garga - When the elder brother born of the same mother is unmarried, his younger brother should not marry. When the elder brother has not done Aadhanam, the younger brother should not do Aadhanam; if he does, he will be a fallen man.

2. Yama - If the younger brother marries and does Aadhanam before his father’s brother’s sons, or his father’s other wife’s sons, there is no fault.

3. Saatatapa - The younger brother does not attract any fault if he marries ahead of an elder who is a eunuch, lives in a distant country, fallen man, sanyasi or one who is attached to yogasastra.

4. Katyayana - The younger brother does not attract any fault if he marries ahead of an elder who lives in a distant country, is a eunuch, has a single testicle, of a different mother, is attached to prostitute, fallen man, is akin to sudra, very ill, inert, dumb, blind, deaf, hunchback, dwarf, bereft of limbs, old, eternal brahmachari, likes agriculture related to king, likes expanding wealth, is detached from marriage, cheat, mad or thief. In such cases the elder brother also does not attract the fault of Parivitti. Inert or dumb man can also marry. Still if the younger brother marries before him, there is no fault.

5. Parasara - If the elder brother has gone to another country for dharma or wealth, the younger brother should wait for him for 12 years.

6. Vasishtha - If the elder brother, who has gone to another country for dharma or wealth, is not married and is not doing Agnihotram, the younger brother should wait for him for 12 years. If the elder has gone for any other purpose, the younger should wait for him for 8 to 10 years.

7. Gautama - If the elder brother, who has gone to another country as a student, is not married and has not done Aadhanam, the younger brother should wait for him for 12 years.

8. Sankar - Same as vasishtha.

9. Waiting thus is in respect of one who is not mad etc. In Chandrika also - It is not proper to wait for one who is mad, sinner, fallen, eunuch or who suffers from consumptive disease. In the case of mad, inert, eunuch and fallen men, there is no marriage, samskara, Aasoucham (defilement) or udakadanam. Manu says that Arka marriage can be done for them.

10. Manu and Saatatapa - The younger brother who marries and performs Agnihotram when his elder

brother is not married is known as Parivetta; the elder is known as Parivitti.

11. Parasara - Parivitti, Parivetta, the wife of Parivetta, one who gave her in danam and the Purohit who performed that marriage - all five go to naraka. The fault of Parivedana is not attracted in the case of hunchback, dwarf, eunuch, stammerer,inert, blind from birth, deaf and dumb men. In the case of the son of father’s brother or of step - mother, there is no fault of Parivedana. The younger brother, who is Parivetta, has no right for Agni, Vedas, tapas and sraadham. When the elder sister is due for marriage, but not married, the younger sister should not go for marriage. In case the elder sister has any defect, there is no fault in the marriage of the younger sister.

12. Parasara again - The younger sister who gets married ahead of her elder sister is called ‘Agredidhishu’, whereas the elder sister in this case is called ‘Didhishu’.

13. Bodhayana - Parivitti, Parivetta, the wife of Parivetta, one who gave her in danam and the Purohit who performed that marriage - all five go to naraka.

14. In case the younger sister has ‘Patityam’, Prayaschittam has to be done before her marriage. Yama - In case the girl commits the sin in youth without discrimination, her father has to follow the rules for half the Prayaschittam. She has to be married only after purification through Prayaschittam. If not, the man who marries her will also become ‘Patita’ (fallen).

15. Vyasa says that if one marries a Patita, he becomes also Patita. One who shares Patita’s vehicle, bed, seat etc. for one year knowingly becomes also a Patita. One who does yagna, marriage, Vedic teaching and eating food knowingly with a Patita becomes a Patita instantly.

16. Devala - Same as above.

17. Aapasthambha - Even after Prayaschittam, one should not have any relationship with a Patita.

18. Aapasthambha proves logically that children born to Patitas are also Patitas. He refutes the argument that the children born to a Patita man cannot be Patitas as his wife is not a Patita. Haaritha is also of the same view. Because - Woman is like the pot for curd. If one makes ghee out of curd made in a pot with milk touched by a dog, that ghee is not used for yagas etc. Similarly good people do not relate to a child born of semen defiled by being in the body of a Patita.

19. Bodhayana - One who is associated with a Patita for one year becomes also Patita. One who does yagna, marriage and Vedic teaching with a Patita becomes a Patita instantly.

20. Bodhayana also - Children born of Patitas, if desired, should do Prayaschittam, ¾ of that for a Patita. This also applies to women.

21. Male child of Patita becomes Patita; not female child. Vasishtha says that daughter of Patita can be accepted in marriage without dowry and after doing Prayaschittam.

22. Yagnavalkya - Same as above.

23. Haaritha also - Daughter of Patita should be made to fast for a whole day without clothes, made to wear white clothes the next morning and utter loudly that she does not belong to family of Patita, nor they belong to her and then she can be accepted in marriage on the banks of a tirtha or at his home.

24. Yagnavalkya says about the benefit of such marriage - As the maintenance of lineage by the birth of son, grandson and great - grandson and attainment of Swarga by following dharma are possible only in association with women, women should be protected.

104. Method of Protecting Women

1. Manu - Men should always ensure no freedom for their women. They should keep women attached to worldly matters under their control. Father before marriage, husband during youth and son during old age should protect a woman. Woman does not deserve freedom. Women should be protected carefully even from association with minor evils. If not protected, they might cause misery to both the lineages. Knowing this dharma as the best for all varnas, even weak husbands should protect their wives. One who protects his wife becomes the protector of his progeny of sons and grandsons, good conduct, himself and his dharma. The husband enters his wife in the form of semen, becomes foetus and is born as son. As he is born again through his wife thus, she is known as ‘Jaya’. Whichever type of husband woman gets, she begets that type of son. Hence for the purity of the progeny, wife should be protectd. Nobody can protect women by use of force. It is possible to protect her by adopting the following means. She should be made to work in gathering and spending money, keeping materials including her body clean, following dharma, cooking food and taking care of the house. Even if they are kept at home, they cannot be said to be protected by their well - intentioned husbands. Women, who protect themselves, are only protected. Women will be spoiled by drinking liquor, association with evil persons, separation from husband, roaming outside, sleeping at wrong time, living in other persons’ homes etc. Women do not care for beauty and age; they will enjoy men, whether handsome or ugly. Even if protected with effort at home, as they are inclined to desire on seeing men, unsteady mind and natural absence of love, they start disliking husband. Man has to take extra effort to protect women knowing this type of nature of women, which has come down from the time Brahma started creation. Manu says that woman has as her nature right from the start of creation, lying down always, sitting, decorating herself, desire, anger, crookedness, conspiracy against others and bad conduct. Woman picks up the qualities of her duly married husband, like a river joning the sea. Women, who bear children, are very fortunate, worthy of adoration and add lustre to the home, are equal to Lakshmi; there is no difference between them. Women have been created to bear children and men to produce progeny. Hence Veda mentions Aadanam with wife as a normal feature. It is obvious that woman is alone responsible for delivering a child and protecting it and for day - to - day activities. Woman performs various functions - bearing of children, dharmic acts, service, superior pleasure and attainment of Swarga for oneself and ancestors. If husband has to go to another country for work, he should arrange for all needs of his wife. If woman has to struggle for food and clothing, even if she were good, she will become evil. When the husband has arranged for food and clothing and left for another country, the wife should remain at home, taking care of her chastity. If food and clothing are not available, she can earn her living by blemishless activities (like spinning etc.). When Dvijas (men of the first three varnas) marry women of their own varna and other varna, seniority and respect for the women occur in accordance with their varna. The woman of same jati should only do bodily service to the husband and daily observance of dharmic acts; not woman of a different jati. One, who gets such services done by a woman of jati different from his, even when woman of his own jati is available, becomes a brahmana chandala, as mentioned earlier. (Brahmana chandala is one born of a brahmana woman to a sudra father). Married couple should so conduct themselves that there will be no separation and transgression.

2. Daksha - If wife is favourable, there is no asrama greater than Grihastha. A grihastha attains dharma, artha and kama through his wife. It is certain that wife being favourable alone is swarga and her being hostile is naraka. Even in swarga it is rare to find mutual love in a couple. If one of them is loving and the other does not respond, what greater misery can there be? For the pleasure of the grihastha, wife alone is responsible. Wife is called ‘Patni’ only when she is aware of grihastha dharmas, knows her husband’s mind and is subordinate to him. For one, whose wife is hostile, in addition to sorrow, there will be quarrel, disharmony and mutual recrimination. For one who has two wives, these features are specially applicable. Women are all like leaches. Even if a woman is adored with ornaments, dress, food and pleasures, she will demean her husband. The poor leach draws only blood; woman draws wealth, mind, flesh, vitality and pleasure. Woman, who was bashful in childhood and given to bodily pleasures in youth, considers her husband like a grass in old age. If she is not stopped out of misplaced love while initially indulging in bad actions, she cannot be stopped later, like a disease ignored. Woman, who is always favourable, happy, able, chaste and child - bearing is Lakshmi herself. Woman, who is always joyous, able in position and regard and doing acts liked by husband is alone ‘Jaya’; otherwise she is ‘Jara’ (old and eaten up). A husband, who abandons in youth his wife, who is faultless and obedient, will face being a woman and widow for seven generations. A wife, who disgraces her husband, who is poor, diseased and idiotic, will be born after death as dog and pig again and again. Woman, who fasts and observes austerities while her husband is alive, steals the life of the husband; she will go to naraka. One, whose disciple, wife, child, brother, friend and dependent are obedient, is honoured in the world.

3. Yagnavalkya - Woman, who does not resort to other men while her husband is alive or dead, will get fame in this world. She will be happy along with Parvati in the next world. Women should act as told by their husbands. This is the best dharma for women. She should await the return of her husband, who is afflicted with great sins, after purification. Women should be honoured with ornaments, dress, and food by husband, brother, father, relatives, mother - in - law, father - in - law and brother - in - law. She should keep things in right places at home and be capable, joyous, economical in spending money and obedient to husband and prostrate to the parents of husband. While husband is away to another place, she should avoid sport, bathing luxuriously, witnessing crowds and festivals, laughter and visit to others’ houses. Woman should be protected by father in childhood, husband in youth and son in old age and by close relatives in the absence of these. She is never entitled to freedom. Woman, who acts to the liking and welfare of husband, is of good conduct and has conquered her senses, attains fame in this world and good state in the next. When wife of same varna is there, husband should not get any dharmic act done by woman of another varna. When there are many wives of same varna, dharmic acts should not be got done by anyone other than the eldest.

4. Sankar - Woman should not go out of house without information. She should not be without top cover dress; not walk fast; not talk to other men other than trader, sanyasi, old man and doctor. She should not show her navel; she should wear her dress till the ankle; not show off her breasts; not laugh without closing her mouth. She should not hate her husband and his relatives. She should not be in the same place with prostitute, evil woman, woman of evil practices, sanyasini, astrologer woman, cheating woman and fraudster. Due to association, good conduct will be affected.

5. Parasara - Wife, who dishonours her husband, who is poor, diseased or idiotic, will be born many times as dog and pig in later births. When husband is alive, woman, who observes fast and vrata reduces the lifespan of husband; she will also go to naraka. Manu says that vratas observed without permission of husband will go to Rakshasas. One should not talk to woman, who wreaks evil to relatives and persons of same jati and harms the foetus. Harming the foetus is twice as harmful as Brahmahatya. There is no Prayaschitta for it; one should keep her away.

6. Markandeya - Vratas etc. observed by woman without permission from father, husband and son are fruitless.

7. Katyayana - Same as above.

8. Mahabharata states that the woman who has rendered service of husband reaches a good state and that woman who has not done so, but has observed vratas only does not attain a good state - “The Lokapalaka, Yama then said: O blemishless one! Grieve not. Return. You will not reach auspicious spheres. How can you, who were always averse to own dharma, attain auspicious spheres? Husband has been established by all Devas as God for woman. O woman! You did not know your God owing to delusion. Worship of husband alone is dharma for woman with husband in the world.”

9. Manu - Other than husband, there is no separate yaga, vrata or fast for women. By serving her husband, woman is honoured in Swarga. Husband alone is the giver of pleasure to woman during period of fertility and other times and in this world and the next. Even if husband is of bad conduct, loves another woman or is devoid of good qualities, wife should consider her husband as God; not leave him. Woman, who desires to get the world obtainable through merit of dharmas performed with husband, should not do anything not to the liking of her husband while alive or even after his death. In childhood, youth and old age, even while at her own home, she should not do anything of her own will. Woman should be under the control of father in childhood, husband in youth and in case of death of husband, that of sons; she should not be free. She should not desire to be separate from father, brother or sons. If separate, she will bring about downfall of both the lineages. Woman should be always happy, capable in household work, keep utensils etc. clean and not incur too much of expense.

10. Katyayana - One who has many wives should get service for Agnihotra etc. from wife of same varna. If there are many of the same varna, he should get it done by the eldest, who is faultless. Or, he should entrust it to wife who has borne good sons, is obedient and capable, who speaks kindly and is pure. If not possible, he should get it done by wife in the order of seniority every day. If that is also not possible, wife should do the service alone or together with others.

11. In Dharmasara - Lakshmi resides with all her aspects in a home where there is no quarrel and the residents are respected.

12. Vyasa - A chaste woman should always worship her husband with all three instruments - mind, speech and body, even if he were ugly, of bad conduct, of evil nature, diseased, of evil spirits, drunkard, angry, old, idiot, dumb, blind, deaf, terrible, poor, miserly, inferior, afraid, given to gambling or women.

13. In Ratnavali - Similar.

14. Vyasa - Sitting at the entrance to home, looking out of the window, bad words, laughter etc. are prohibited for a chaste woman. A chaste woman, who is not affected by desirous looks of others, being touched in a crowd, show of wealth etc. and who is true to her husband in mind, seech and body is ornament of the world. Woman, who does not go to another man even if prayed devotedly, caught by force or adored with dresses etc. is chaste. Woman, who does not look even if looked at by other men, laugh even if other men laugh with her or talk even if talked by other men, is chaste. Woman, who is youthful and is beautiful, expert in music and dance and is still not affected by another man equal to her, is chaste. Woman, who does not desire another man, endowed with youth and handsomeness and capable of attracting women, is very chaste. Woman, who eats after husband has finished eating, grieves when husband grieves, is happy when husband is happy, wears dirty clothes when husband is away in another country, sleeps after husband has slept, wakes up before him and does not even think of another man is chaste. She should be devoted to father - and mother - in - law. She should be helpful in husband’s dharmic activities; not spend too much; be keen on karmas; be pure in her body; do auspicious deeds; always speak kind words to husband. She should decorate her house and keep all materials in the house clean. When husband returns from field, forest or village, she should get up, speak kind words, make him sit on a seat and make him happy by giving him water for washing feet. She should have unlimited quantities of food, give food in time, be humble, take care of foodgrains, and offer seat, food, danam, honour and kind words in time as appropriate to gurus, sons, friends, relatives, workers, male and female servants, guests, bhikshus, sanyasis et al. She should save on household expenses and not spend all of the money given by husband. But she should not save out of money given for danam. Without husband’s permission, she should not give money to relatives. She should avoid drink and food not liked by husband. She should avoid the following in front of husband - massaging oil, bath, brushing teeth, combing hair, eating, vomiting, sleep, wearing dress and ornaments. Woman who does not respond to the call of husband immediately will be born a crow in 15 births. Woman who dishonours husband out of lust, anger or jealousy will go to naraka in 7 births.

15. Atri - Woman who cheats her husband with her Pranas or money will be born as a worm many times and then Chandali. Japa, tapas, pilgrimage, sanyasa, repeated chanting of mantras and worship of Devatas - these six are negative factors for women and sudras.

16. Vyasa - Chaste woman, who desires husband’s long life, should not hate turmeric, kunkumam, sindooram, anjanam, blouse, betel - leaves, auspicious ornaments, combing and pleating hair and ornaments for hands, ears etc. Woman who gives Argyam in early morning to Sun will not attain widowhood in 7 births. Devatas are happy when she makes design of mandalam outside the house and worships there with Akshatas etc. without mantras. Lakshmi resides with all kalas in the house which shines with auspicious objects and cleaning with cowdung etc. Woman, who does not offer bali to Jyeshtha Devi according to her capacity out of the food she is going to eat, will attain naraka. Women, who desire for sons, grandsons and wealth, should offer bali to Jyeshtha Devi every day.

17. Valmiki - For women, father, son, self, mother and friends will not be the refuge; husband is the only refuge in this world and the next. As women are of unsteady mind, they do not hold on to help, lineage, vidya, danam and acquisitions. For chaste women with good conduct, truth, adherence to sastras and equality, husband is the best. Veena without string will not make sound; chariot without wheel will not run; though having many sons, woman without husband will not be happy.

18. Vyasa - For a chaste woman, keen on service of husband, there is no sin in this world and the next. Chaste woman, established in dharma, is verily Parvathi; no doubt. None can dishonour her at any time.

19. Bodhayana - Woman keen on good of husband will attain to Swarga.

105. Dharma of Pregnant Woman

1. Yagnavalkya - 16 nights from the day of start of menses are called period of ‘Ritu’ (fertility). The couple should unite in even nights in this period.

2. Parasara - If a woman, after post - menses bath, does not unite with her husband, she will attain to naraka. She will also attain widowhood in many births. Husband, who does not unite with wife after post - menses bath, is guilty of killing of foetus; no doubt. Garbhadhanam has been covered in detail earlier.

3. In Smritichandrika - Pregnant woman should not sit on grinder and pestle; go under water; stay in deserted house; sit on snakepit; grieve mentally; scratch on ground with nails, charcoal and ash; lie down always; work hard; sit on husk, charcoal, ash, bone and tile; conspire; stretch body; have hair untied and body impure; lie down with head in north or in ditch, without dress, grieving or wet feet; speak inauspicious words; laugh. She should worship mother - and father - in - law. She should do auspicious deeds, be clean - faced and do things to the liking and good of husband.

4. In Smritiratnam - Pregnant woman should not—eat, bathe in sandhya times; go near foot of tree any time; be lying down always; stay in the shade of cot. She should bathe in warm water mixed with herbs. She should have raksha; wear ornaments; do Vastu pooja; do danam; do Parvati’s Naktavrata on Tritiya. She should observe these rules specially during pregnancy. Son born to such a woman will have long life. Otherwise the offspring will be affected; no doubt.

5. Yagnavalkya - If pregnant woman is not given what she desires, her offspring will be affected by disfigurement or death; hence one should do what she desires.

6. In Susrutham - From the start of pregnancy, woman should avoid—physival labour, hard work, heavy eating, sleep during day, wakefulness at night, grief, fear, getting into vehicles, squatting with legs bent up, discharge of blood. If she is given objects of her desire, she will beget son of courage and long life.

7. Pregnancy should be recognised by signs. The signs have been mentioned oin Susrutham - exhaustion, tiredness, thirst, uneasiness in thighs, vibration in vagina.

8. Brihaspati - Same as above.

9. Kasyapa - Pregnant woman should avoid, in addition to those in item 3 above, carving, getting on to elephant, horse, pungent food.

10. In Garbhopanishad - In Ritu period, through union, the semen and blood mix. In 7 days, it becomes a bubble. In 15 days, it becomes semi - solid; in 1 month, it becomes hard. In 2nd month head is formed; in 3rd month, feet; in 4th month, fingers, belly, waist; in 5th month, spine; in 6th month, nose, eyes, ears. In 7th month, it becomes a jiva. In 8th month, it attains fullness. In case of predominance of semen, male child is formed; in case of blood, female child; if both semen and blood are equal, eunuch. If conception takes place from agitated parents, the child becomes blind, lame, hunchback, dwarf. Due to force of Vayu, if semen enters in two streams, twins are conceived. In 9th month, the foetus is complete in all respects; it remembers previous births and past good and bad deeds and wails thus—I went through many thousands of births; ate several kinds of foods; drank milk from many breasts; I go through birth and death again and again; Immersed in the sea of sorrow, I do not know the way of emancipation; when I come out of this uterus, I shall take refuge in Sankhya, Yoga etc. which will give me good results and destroy evil; I shall worship Maheswara; I shall take refuge in Bhagavan Narayana. I did so many acts for the sake of relatives; benefitted by them, they went away. I am alone being burnt due to those sins. The being, grieving thus, comes out of the small orifice of vagina of mother and suffers a lot. On being born, it is touched by Vishnu’s vayu and forgets all about previous births and becomes inert.

11. Yagnavalkya - The jiva, born out of the mixture of semen and blood, is of liquid form having the five essential dhatus (elements) in the 1st month. It hardens in 2nd month; in 3rd month, parts of body and sense - organs develop; it gains the qualities of Panchabhutas - space, air, fire, water and earth. In 4th month the parts of body become firm; in 5th month blood forms; in 6th month, strength, complexion, nails, hair develop; in 7th month, mind, consciousness, nerves, bones, blood vessels etc. develop; in 8th month, skin, flesh, memory develop. In this month, the quality of ‘Ojas’ keeps travelling from mother to the foetus and back to the mother frequently. That is why the child born in 8th month is lifeless. In 9th or 10th month, the baby is pushed out like an arrow, from the small orifice in the machine of mother’s body by strong airs of delivery. ‘Ojas’ is the object in the heart, clean, somewhat reddish and acidic.

106. Widows’ Dharmas

1. Yagnavalkya - A widowed woman should not live separate from mother, father, son, brother, mother - in - law, father - in - law or uncle; if separate, she will be despised. This is applicable if she observes brahmacharya in view of Vishnusmriti, which says that if husband dies, wife can die along with him or live with brahmacharya.

2. Vyasa - Woman, who observes brahmacharya after her husband’s death, will reach Swarga and enjoy pleasures with husband. Widow’s hair binds her husband; hence she should shave her head. She should eat once; not second time. She should observe vratas of fast for 3 days, 5 days, 15 days and 1 month. She may observe ‘kruchchras’ (prayaschittas) like Chandrayanam. She should maintain life with barley food, fruits, vegetables, milk vrata etc. till life ebbs. If she lies down in a cot, she will push her husband into naraka; hence she should lie down on floor only. She should not have luxurious bath; not use perfumes. She should offer tarpanam every day with kusa and til to her husband, his father and his grandfather by uttering their names and gotra. She should consider Vishnu as her husband and worship. She should meditate on Vishnu as her husband. Widow who observes thus is also called chaste (Pativrata).

3. Aasvalayana - Widow without son or with child son should approach her father or relatives and live with discipline. She should do japa like sudra. She should worship Surya every day and meditate on husband alone. Nothing else is laid down.

4. Parasara - Widow who observes brahmacharya goes to Swarga, like famous brahmacharis.

5. Manu - After death of husband, widow should have light food with pure flower, root, fruit etc and shrink her body. She should not utter even the name of another man. One who observes brahmacharya in this manner will go to Swarga, like brahmacharis like Sanaka. If widows, sanyasis and brahmacharis use one of the three items, betel - leaf, nut or lime, it will be equal to meat. If they use all three, it will be equal to liquor.

6. Aapasthambha - Widow should observe, as long as she lives, bath,food one time, sleeping on floor, brahmacharya and avoidance of pungent food, salt, honey and meat.

107. Anugamanam (Joining Husband on Funeral Pyre)

1. Vishnu - After death of husband, wife should either observe brahmacharya or die on his funeral pyre.

2. Parasara - Man has 3 ½ crores of hair; wife, who does Anugamanam will live in Swarga for 3 ½ crores of years.

3. Haaritha - Same as above; she purifies the lineages of her mother, father and husband.

4. Parasara says that she will not enjoy Swarga alone; but like a snake - charmer would charm a snake from its pit, she would spirit away her husband forcefully from naraka, even if he happens to be there and enjoy with him in Swarga.

5. Trikandi - A Pativrata wife will spirit away her husband from naraka, if he happens to be there because of sins and enjoy with him in Swarga for 10000 years per each hair of hers. Messemgers of Yama run away from a distance on seeing her husband.

6. Sankar, Angiras - That Pativrata will enjoy in Swarga with her husband for a period lasting that of 14 Indras, adored by Apsara women. Wife, who does Anugamanam, makes her husband sinless, even if he is guilty of killing brahmana or friend or of being ungrateful. Wife, who enters the fire on death of her husband, is equal to Arundhati and is honoured in Swarga. Woman is not freed of her birth as woman till she enters fire on death of her husband.

7. Angiras - For Pativrata women, there is no dharma other than entering fire, on death of husband. Know that Pativrata is that woman who suffers while husband suffers, is happy while husband is happy, is emaciated while husband is away in another country and dies on his death.

8. Upamanyu - Whether wife is of brahmana varna or of other caste, if she is childless, there is no course for her other than Anugamanam.

9. In Vignanesvariyam on this matter - This dharma applies commonly to all women right upto chandala caste, unless they are pregnant or have small children.

10. In Smritiratnam also - Same as above.

11. Ourva - Women, who have small children, are pregnant, not attained maturity or in menses period should not do Anugamanam.

12. In a different Smriti - Same as above.

13. In a different book - If women who are impure after child - birth or in menses are desirous of Anugamanam, they are purified by doing so. Some say that Anugamanam is prohibited for pregnant women and is optional for others.

14. Vyasa through the guise of story of dove - That chaste female dove entered the dazzling fire. It then got its husband, who was wearing nice armlets. The male dove reached Swarga along with its female and enjoyed there, praised by Devas.

15. There is also prohibition on Anugamanam in Smriti for brahmana woman. Paitinasi - By the order of Brahma, there is no Anugamanam for brahmana woman. It is the best dharma for women of other varnas.

16. Virat - Wife should act harmoniously with husband while he is alive. On his death, she should not do Anugamanam. She should live and do dharma which will be good for the husband. If she does Anugamanam, she will attract the sin of suicide.

17. Angiras - If brahmana woman does Anugamanam, she does not reach Swarga, nor does she get her husband to Swarga.

18. Vyaghrapada - “Brahmana woman should not die along with her husband, overcome by grief. If she dies, she will get the sin of suicide. If she is alive, she will get the fate of a sanyasi.” Vignanesvariyam, Madhaviyam, Smritiratnam and other such books state that the above statements refer to a separate funeral pyre, not the same pyre of her husband. Hence Usanas says that brahmana woman should not get on to another pyre; for other women, this is the best dharma.

19. But in Apararga - The following statement applies to women other than brahmana women - “If husband dies in another country, Pativrata wife should embrace her husband’s footwear and enter fire with faith. Know her power. She will not enjoy Swarga alone; but like a snake - charmer would charm a snake from its pit, she would spirit away her husband forcefully from naraka, even if he happens to be there bound cruelly by ropes by Yama’s servants, and enjoy with him in Swarga, adored by Deva women, for the period of 14 Indras.”

20. Vignanesvara - Sruti says ‘One should not die, desirous of Swarga, before the end of his or her lifespan’. This does not mean that Anugamanam is improper. One, who is desirous of Moksha, should not reduce his or her lifespan for the sake of Swarga. In the rest of her life, removing mental impurities by performing nitya and naimittika karmas; by attaining Atmagnanam through sravanam (hearing), mananam (meditation) and nididhyasanam (contemplation); one can attain Moksha, which is attainment of Brahman, of the form of eternal and unparalleled Bliss. Hence one should not lose life for the sake of short - lived and inferior pleasure; this is the meaning. Hence Anugamanam is suitable for wife, desirous of Swarga and not Moksha, like other kamya karmas.

21. This Anugamanam will bring merit to both wife and husband if adopted by Pativrata woman; if adopted by sinful woman, her sins get attenuated. Vyasa and Saatatapa say that if even women, who dishonoured husband with evil mind and were adverse to husband, do Anugamanam even out of desire, anger, fear or delusion, become freed from sin. Pativrata woman, who does acts liked by husband right from beginning, reaches auspicious worlds along with husband, if she does Anugamanam.

22. In Puranasaram, Narada says to a brahmana woman - O woman! Sin accrued out of association with other man or other reasons gets destroyed on entering fire. If Pativrata woman, keen on service of husband, does Anugamanam, the couple reach Swarga for certain.

108. Censure of unchaste woman

1. Yagnavalkya - Unchaste woman should be kept at home in a powerless, unattractive and dishonoured condition with just enough food for living and be made to sleep on floor.

2. Manu - Woman, who unites with another man other than husband with desire for child, is censured in this world and will not reach a good state hereafter. She will be born a wolf; caught by terrible diseases. Even if husband is inferior, if woman lusts after another superior man, she will be despised in this world; she will be called ’Parapoorva’. Son born from another man is not a son; similarly son born of woman other than wife is also not a son. No Sastra permits a second husband for a Pativrata woman.

3. Sruti - Woman cannot have two husbands.

4. Yagnavalkya - Sin generated out of adultery is purified through Ritu. If woman bears a child through adultery or is guity of killing of foetus or husband or great sin, she should be abandoned. Purification through Ritu refers to mentaladultery. If woman bears a child with a sudra man, she should be abandoned. Manusmriti says that if women of brahmana, kshatriya and vaisya varnas, on union with sudra man, do not become pregnant, they get purified through Prayaschittam; others do not. Smriti says that woman who unites with disciple or Guru or kills husband or pratilomaja should be abandoned. Abandonment means keeping her away from pleasures and dharmic deeds; not total abandonment, as rules state that husband should keep the guilty woman at his home only, but subdued.

5. Usanas - Adulterous wife should be given low class dress and food, dishonoured, made powerless and made to observe Prayaschittam including Chandrayanam or Prajapatyam.

6. Yagnavalkya - Vrata stipulated for men who unite with women other than wife should be enforced on woman who unites with men other than husband.

7. Bhrigu - Man 80 years old or less than 16 years old, women and sick persons shall observe half the Prayaschittam.

8. Manu - After Prayaschittam, woman should not be treated with contempt. This is because prior to marriage, Soma, Gandharva and Agni enjoyed woman and gave her cleanliness, sweet words and general purity. Hence women are pure.

9. Aapasthambha stipulates Prayaschittam for man who renounces wife without any reason and woman who renounces husband without reason - Man who renounced wife should wear donkey skin with hair outside and beg for alms in 7 homes saying ‘Please give bhiksha to this man who renounced wife’; he should do this for 6 months. Woman who renounced husband should observe Prajapatya kruchchram for 6 months.

109. Dharmas of Grihasthas (Householders)

1. Daksha - Grihastha has 9 vidhas, 9 eashaddanas, 9 karmas, 9 vikarmas, 9 prachchannas, 9 prakasyas, 9 saphalas, 9 nishphalas and 9 adeyas. These navakas (9 things) will glorify the grihastha. Vidhas (customs): - To be done - On arrival of elders at home, getting up with full attention of mind; eyes; face and kind words; saying ‘please come’; speaking kind words right at beginning (i.e. without waiting for the guest to speak); honouring; following the guest. Eashaddanas (small gifts): - Minimum to be given - Giving the guest place; water; grass for sitting; washing the feet with water; application of oil; seat; facility for sleeping; food; drinking water. Even poor people can afford to give these. Grihastha should not eat without the guest having eaten. Karmas: - To be done - Sandhyavandanam; ritual bath; japa; homa; Brahmayagna; Devapuja; Vaisvadevam; Awaiting guest; honouring the guest as per capacity. Vikarmas: - Karmas not to be done - Bearing tales; untruth; cheating; kama (desire); anger; absence of love; hate; hypocrisy; treachery. (Also, dance, music, agriculture, service, trade, making salt, , carrying weapons - these are inferior for a brahmana). Prachchannas (secrets not to be made public): - Age; wealth; household secret; mantra; sexual union; medicine; austerity (tapas); gift (danam); disgrace. Prakasyas (Matters to be made public): - Lending for interest; closure of loan; danam; adhyayanam (Vedic study); sale; giving daughter away; vrishabhotsarjanam; sin committed in secret; freedom from blame. Saphalas (Fruitful acts): - Giving to mother; father; guru; friend; humble follower; helpful person; poor; orphan; man of good conduct. Nishphalas (Fruitless acts): - Giving to evil person; flattering bard; boxer; bad doctor; gambler; cheat; angry man; wanderer; thief. Adeyas (materials not to be given): - Common materials; materials obtained by begging; materials on pledge; materials on deposit; wife; wife’s belongings; wife’s property obtained as gift; materials on temporary deposit; entire wealth when descendant is there. These 9 materials are not to be given to others even in emergency. If given, the giver should do Prayaschittam. Lakshmi does not leave in this world as well as the next, a brahmana, who observes the above 9 sets of 9 each.

Praise of Grihasthasrama:
2. Manu - Out of men of the four asramas, grihastha is said to be the best as Veda directly stipulates karmas like Aadhanam to him and he protects men of the other three asramas. As all rivers and rivulets merge in the sea, men of all asramas join the grihastha. Grihastha, who does karmasanyasa, removes sins generated out of karmas and studies Vedas with discipline, gets son and wealth and lives comfortably. Brahma has said that son is called ‘Putra’ as he saves father from the naraka called ‘Put’. One, who does karmasanyasa and performs karmas with no desire thus, removes sins and reaches the best state.

3. Here sanyasa means abandoning kamya karmas, i.e. karmas with desire for fruit. Bhagavad Gita says thus - Wise men say that abandoning kamya karmas is sanyasa. It is not abandoning nitya karmas (karmas to be done daily compulsorily). One should not leave yagna, danam and tapas; they must certainly be done. They are purifying agents for the wise. My view is that one should do these karmas without attachment and desire for fruit. O Arjuna! One who performs karmas without attachment and surrenders them to Brahman is not affected by sins like lotus leaf by water. Yogis perform karmas with mind, speech and body and sense - organs without attachment and for purification of mind. One who performs karmas without expecting fruits attains Mukti; others are bound.

4. Daksha - One who performs karmas is alone called ‘Grihi’. One who has abandoned svakarmas does not become a grihastha merely by living at home and having wife and children. As Devas, humans and animals are dependent on grihastha for their daily survival, he is superior to men of other asramas. Just as all living beings depend on mother for survival, all bhikshus depend on grihastha for survival. Grihastha is said to be the support of all the four asramas. If he grieves, people of other asramas grieve. The stem of a tree is supported on its root. Branches arise from the stem. Leaves are there in the branches. If root is destroyed, all the rest perish. Hence one should protect the grihastha somehow. The king and people of other asramas should protect and honour the grihastha. One who has the qualities of compassion, bashfulness, forgiveness, faith, knowledge, sacrifice and gratefulness is said to be the best grihastha.

5. Vyasa - One who chants Vedas every day, wears yagnopavita, speaks truth and has conquered anger attains Brahmasayujya. One who performs without break sandhyavandanam, ritual bath and brahmayagna and is free from jealousy, is soft and has conquered sense - organs attains best worlds. Grihastha, free from desire, fear, anger, greed and delusion, who has not left Gayatri japa and performs sraadhas becomes liberated. One, who does good to parents, cows and brahmanas, performs yagas, and is devoted to Devas is honoured in Brahmaloka. One, who is after dharma, artha and kama, worships Devatas, adores Devatas every day and has patience and compassion is said to be grihastha. By merely living at home one does not become a grihastha. He should perform good karmas as per capacity; leave bad karmas. By leaving delusion and attaining high level of yoga, he becomes free from the bondage of samsara; no doubt.

6. Parasara - One who satisfies Pitrus by sraadham, Devas by yagnas, guests by food, Rishis by Vedas, Brahma by son, bhutas by bali and all beings by kindness reaches auspicious worlds. Sanyasis and brahmacharis, who eat food obtained from alms, survive on grihastha. Hence grihasthasramam is the best. Grihastha, who observes all rules, attains best worlds.

7. Yagnavalkya - Chanting of Vedas, yagas, brahmacharya, tapas, self - control, faith, fast and independence are causes of Atmagnanam. Atma should be known by this path by people of all asramas. Atma must be understood through listening to Vedanta; enquired through intellect. Then Atma will be known indirectly. Dvijas, who, with great faith, resort to lonely land and worship this true Atma, attain to Paramatma. They reach in sequence Devatas of Agni, daytime, bright half (Sukla paksha), Uttarayanam, Devaloka, Surya and Vidyut (lightning). Then Manasa Purusha reaches them to Brahmaloka. There is no return for them to this samsara. Those, who conquer Swarga by yagna, danam and tapas, reach in sequence Devatas of smoke (dhumam), night, dark half (Krishna paksha), Dakshinayanam, Pitruloka and Chandra and enjoy the fruits of merit. Then they reach Vayu, rain, water and earth and become sukla (semen) through foodgrains like paddy and are born as living beings. They reach upper worlds again in the same way. One who does not gert to follow these two routes is born as snake, worm, insect etc. Grihastha, who earns money through proper means, is kind to guests, performs nitya and naimittika sraadhas, speaks truth and is keen on Atmagnanam, also attains Mukti.

8. For people of all asramas, attainment of Atma is achievable through direct experience. Worshippers reach Brahman by Archiradi marga (the route of light - Agni, daytime etc.) Those who perform kamya karmas attain Swarga by Dhoomadi marga (the route of smoke etc.) and return to earth on the exhaustion of merit. The import is that Mukti is not only for Sanyasi; but also for the grihastha, who performs karmas and is tattvagnani (knower of Truth).

9. Sruti also - Knower of Brahman becomes Brahman itself. Worshippers reach in sequence Devatas of Agni, daytime, bright half (Sukla paksha), Uttarayanam, Year, Surya, Chandra and Vidyut (lightning). Then Manasa Purusha reaches them to Brahmaloka. This is the Devayana route. Performers of karmas reach in sequence Devatas of smoke (dhumam), night, dark half (Krishna paksha), Dakshinayanam, Pitruloka, Akasa and Chandra and enjoy the fruits of merit. Then they return via Akasa, Vayu, smoke, cloud, rain, water and earth and become foodgrains like paddy, barley, herbs, trees, sesame, urid dal etc. To come out of these states is very tough. They join him who eats the paddy etc. and reach woman through semen. If those jivas had performed good karmas, they are born in one of the three advanced varnas. If they had done bad karmas, they are born in despicable births like dog, pig, chandala and the like. The import of Chandogya Sruti is that worshippers reach Paramapadam (Supreme state) by Archiradi marga, while performers of karmas reach auspicious worlds by Dhoomadi marga and return to earth again by the route of Akasa etc.

10. Manu - One who observes dharmas as mentioned in Sruti and smritis attains fame in this world and reaches glorious and auspicious worlds later.

11. Bhagavan also - One who observes entire Varnasrama dharma and worships Me attains Gnana in the same birth and reaches auspicious state.

12. Bodhayana - Brahmana, who always wears yagnopavita and carries kamandalu, chants Veda every day, keeps off food of sudra, unites with wife in Ritu period and performs homas as laid down, never falls from Brahmaloka. Grihastha, who is austere, chants Veda, performs yaga and has conquered sense - organs, should produce progeny in woman of same varna. He pays off debts to Rishis by chanting Veda, to Indra by Somayaga and to Pitrus by son and enjoys in Swarga. He wins worlds by son; gets joy by grandson; reaches Swarga by great - grandson. Veda states that brahmana is born with three debts. Freedom from debt happens through progeny. As long as progeny is there, he reaches imperishable worlds. One, who has a good son, reaches the previous 7 generations and future 7 generations and himself, thus totalling 15 people, to glorious state. Hence one should beget a son. By producing a son, one produces himself. Son is himself - so says Sruti. Acharyas say that Grihasthasrama is the only one that exists, as others do not have progeny.

13. Gautama - Grihastha is the point of genesis of other asramas, as others do not have the right to produce progeny. As Sruti specifically stipulates Grihasthasrama, that is the only asrama. Persons produced by grihastha alone get the right to be in the four asramas, as producing progeny is prohibited by Sastra in respect of others. Children produced by people of other asramas in violation of Sastra’s prohibition are not entitled to any asrama. Saatatapa Smriti states that Sanyasis, tapasvis and brahmacharis who violate their asrama rules are chandalas. Children born to them should be made to live with chandalas. In all Vedas, Dharmasastras, Puranas and Itihasas, it is only grihasthas who are described and praised in a majority. Hence that is the only asramam. Many teachers think that the other asramas are specified for those who lack power. Gita also states that Janaka et al attained Sidhdhi by performing karmas.

14. Aapasthambha - It is certain that for the best of those who are knowers of Vedas in text and meaning, Vedas are the only authority in matters beyond the senses. Jaimini says that what is stipulated in Veda is dharma. Hence they say that conduct in violation of Vedic karmas is not authority. It amounts to saying that as karmas like Agnihotra are alone stipulated with clear import in all branches of Vedas, Grihasthasrama alone is the best, if Vedas are authority. But burning ground is mentioned for grihasthas in statement: ‘they reached cremation ground’; here cremation ground refers to ‘Pitrumedha’ stipulated after many karmas like Agnihotra; this does not mean that they became ghosts and remained in burning ground. This is because good fruit of Swarga is mentioned after the karma of cremation ground: - ‘the performer reaches Swarga’. Further, Veda says that producing progeny is immortality: - ‘O Mortal! You are born as your son; that is immortality for you; you do not die, as you exist in the form of son’. This is sensible. Father himself is seen directly as a separate entity. It is only that their bodies are different. They appear the same. If the sons observe the prescribed karmas, they enhance the fame and stay in Swarga of their grandfathers et al; thus the succeeding generation enhances the fame and residence in Swarga of the previous generations. They reside in Swarga till the Mahabhutapralaya. Bhavishya Puranam says that even after dissolution, they become the seeds of the next creation. Brahma’s saying is also there to support the glory of Grihasthasrama - “Let us stay with those who chant Veda, unite with woman in non - prohibited period, produce progeny, are devoted and do tapas, yagnas and danam in the land between Ganga and Yamuna (Antarvedi); they alone are our benefactors. One who follows other asrama is destroyed and becomes dirt.” But if it is argued that just as the sons who observe the prescribed karmas enhance the fame and stay in Swarga of their ancestors, the sons who observe prohibited karmas enhance the infamy and stay in naraka of their ancestors, Aapasthambha says - ‘Those who commit sins in a lineage get destroyed themselves; they do not spoil the ancestors. If a leaf in a tree is spoiled by worm etc., that leaf will fall off; it does not bring down the branch or the tree. Similarly for the ancestors, there is no relationship with the karmas of their successors on earth. This is an example. Just as there is no doership for the father et al in karmas of son, there is also no relationship for them with the fruit of karmas. The following is the reason for saying that sinners alone perish. This creation from Devas down till animals is that of Hiranyagarbha and Rishis like Marichi. They continue in their positions without being affected. For example - The bodies of great meritorious persons like Vasishtha shine brilliantly, like the mandalam of Saptarishis. Sruti also says - ‘Stars are actually the brilliance of the meritorious’. This is proof of the fact that ancestors are not affected by sons’ misdeeds. It is possible that a person in another asrama can conquer the perishable world with his own body by the balance of merit left after enjoyment or by arduous tapas; he may attain sidhdhi by mere will; it only means that it is not the greatness of his asrama that is responsible for it. Know that grihasthasrama is praised in this manner. Because Aapasthambha says that one who is careful in observing Sastra in all asramas attains wellbeing and fearless state.

15. Vasishtha - It is only grihastha who performs yaga; tapas; he is the best among persons of the four asramas.

Note: Some sections dealing with dharmas of Vanaprastha and Sanyasa asramas follow.


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