Smriti Mukta Phalam

76. Pratyabhivadanam (Returning of Salutation)

1. Manu - If a brahmana does ‘Abhivadanam’, the person who receives it should say, ‘Ayushman bhava sowmya’ - ‘Nice one! Have a long life’. Commentary on Manusmriti says that the name of the prostrating person should be uttered with ‘plutam’ (lengthened sound) at the end and ‘a’ be added, e.g. ‘Ayushman bhava sowmya Devadattaa,a’.

2. Aapasthambha - When men of the first three varnas do ‘Abhivadanam’, the name of that person should be uttered ending with lengthened sound and extra ‘a’ in the ‘Pratyabhivadanam’, e.g. Champaa,va; Vishnaa,va;, Pinakapanaa,ya;, Agnisii,u;. This is mentioned in the commentary of Haradatta.

3. Haradatta et al are of the opinion that the last sound of the name must be lengthened and extra ‘a’ added.

4. In Smritichandrika and Parasaramadhaviyam, the explanation differs from the statement of Manu. As per this, ‘Ayushman bhava sowmya Devadattaa’ is to be used. But the virtuous agree that adding extra ‘a’ at the end is proper.

5. Manu - A well read man should not do ‘Abhivadanam’ to one who does not know ‘Pratyabhivadanam’, as the latter is equal to sudra. A wise man should say ‘Abhivadaye aham’ to one who does not know how to utter ‘Pratyabhivadanam’ immediately after the former announces his name; the same with all women.

6. Patanjali - One should say ‘Devadatta aham’ to a person, like the case of woman, who does not know ‘plutam’ (lengthened sound) of name while uttering ‘Pratyabhivadanam’.

7. Yama - The brahmana who does not know how to say ‘Pratyabhivadanam’ or blessing will go to naraka; this is certain. One who does not say ‘Pratyabhivadanam’ to the person who does ‘Abhivadanam’ will be born a tree in which eagles and crows live. One who does not say blessings to the person who does ‘Abhivadanam’ immediately shares the sins of the latter. Hence one should bless immediately. Even in the case of a chandala, one should bless like ‘Dring liquor’; if done like this, there is no decline in dharma.

8. Manu - One should not utter the name of a Dikshita, even though he is younger. If he is opposite, one should say, ‘Bho yajamana’; if he is away, ‘tatra bhavan yajamana:’.

9. In Smritiratnam - One should not utter the names of Acharya, his son, Acharya’s wife, Dikshita, Guru, father, father’s brother, mother, mother’s brother, well - wisher, scholar, father - in - law, yati (sanyasi) and mother’s sister.

77. Dharmas of Brahmachari

1. Samvartha - Brahmachari should do Vedic study looking constantly at the Guru’s face. He should do ‘bhikshacharanam’ (asking alms) both in morning and evening with discipline. After showing the food obtained in alms to Guru, he should eat facing east silently and with purity.

2. Daksha - Both vanaprastha and grihastha should take bath both in morning and at noon. Bath is specified in the three sandhyas for sanyasi and in morning only for brahmachari.

3. Vishnu - One should bathe like a staff. This means that no scraping the body to remove dirt is to be done.

4. Aapasthambha - One should not scrape the body to remove dirt while bathing.

5. In Chandrika - Brahmachari should always wear mekhala (girdle), deer - skin, staff, upavita, loin - cloth and katisutra (waist - band).

6. Yama - Brahmachari living in Guru’s home should wear staff, kamandalu (water - pot), Veda and mekhala. He should eat food got by him in alms. Veda here means handful of darbha grass.

7. Yagnavalkya - He should serve the Guru. He should be attentive for his Vedic study to remain with him. He should go for Vedic study only when called by Guru. He should inform Guru of things he got.

8. Manu - He should utter Omkara before and after Vedic study. If not pronounced at the beginning, Veda will slip away; if not pronounced at the end, Veda will be destroyed. He should prostrate at the feet of Guru at the beginning and end of Vedic study.

9. Angiras - He should do ‘Abhivadanam’ to Guru at the beginning and end of Vedic study and on return from outstation.

10. Manu - He should make effort in Vedic study and in acting to do good to Guru, whether instructed by Guru or not. He should stand looking at Guru’s face with folded hands and with control of body, speech, intellect, sense organs and mind. He should sit in front of Guru when told so by him, with the hands not concealed in cloth, with good achara and being attentive. He should always use lower quality food, cloth and decoration in the presence of Guru. He should get up from bed before Guru and go to bed after him. While in lying down position, he should not hear Guru’s words, nor talk to him. Hearing Guru’s words and talking to him should not be done sitting, eating, standing and looking elsewhere.

11. Method - Hearing Guru’s words and talking to him should be done by disciple standing with Guru sitting, following Guru with Guru walking, standing opposite if Guru comes in opposite direction, walking fast behind Guru while Guru walks fast, standing opposite if Guru is looking elsewhere, going near Guru if he is far and standing with head bent down if Guru is lying down or in lower level ground. In the presence of Guru, the disciple’s bed, seat etc. should be at a lower level; he should also not sit as he likes. Here ‘Nityam’ refers to other asramas also. The disciple should not utter the Acharya’s name separately even in his absence. He should utter along with words of eulogy like ‘great man’ etc. He should not mimicry the walk, talk and actions of Guru for fun.

12. The disciple should close his ears if he is at a place where ‘parivada’ or ‘ninda’ of Guru is talked; he should go to another place. ‘Parivada’ is speaking about fault which does not exist in a person; ‘ninda’ is speaking about fault which exists in a person. One who indulges in ‘parivada’ will be born a donkey; one who talks ‘ninda’, a dog. ‘Paribhokta’ (one who enjoys more than his Guru) will be born a worm; one who has jealousy towards his Guru will be born an insect.

13. Further - One should not worship the Guru from a distance or with anger. He should not adore the Guru while he is himself beside a woman, nor while Guru is beside a woman. If he is in a vehicle or seat, he should get down and do ‘Abhivadanam’. He should not stand in such a manner that the wind blowing on him blows on the Guru, whether it is wind from the front, back or sides. When he is standing at a distance from where Guru cannot hear him, he should not speak.

14. Further - The disciple should not sit together with the Guru in a vehicle drawn by bull, horse or camel, in upper floor, on floor spread, mat, stone seat, wooden plank or boat. When Acharya is busy with some other work like yaga, if his disciple or son teaches Veda, even if he is younger or of same age, he is deserving of same respect as the Guru.

15. But he should not do to the son of Guru the following: massaging limbs, bathing, eating ‘uchchishta’ (left - over), washing the feet. He should not do to the wife of Guru the following: applying oil, bathing, massaging body, decorating hair. Women have the power to sway a man to be controlled by desire and anger and leading him down the wrong path, whether he is an idiot or scholar. A man should not be alone even with mother, sister or daughter; as the sense organs are powerful, they pull even the wise. Guru should teach the disciple in a simple manner and for his good. One who is interested in dharma should speak pleasing and soft words. One, whose speech and mind are always pure and well controlled, will attain to all fruits found in Vedanta (Moksha).

16. Further - Even while in trouble, one should not utter words hurtful to others. One should not act in malice against others, nor think maliciously. One should not utter words, which will cause distress to others, as it will hinder attaining to good realms. Brahmachari living in Gurukula should obey the following rules with sense organs under control for developing his tapas. Every day he should take bath, be pure and do tarpanam to Devas, Rishis and pitrus, Pooja to Devatas, and Samidhadhanam. He should avoid honey, meat, perfumes, flowers, liquids, women, eatables turned sour, troubling living beings, applying oil, applying collyrium to eyes, using footwear and umbrella, desire, anger, greed, music, instrument, gambling, quarrel, criticism of others, telling lies, looking at women with desire, embracing them and harming others.

17. Yagnavalkya - The disciple should avoid honey, meat, applying oil, applying collyrium to eyes, left - over food, cruel words, company of women, harm to living beings, seeing Sun during sunrise and sunset, telling lies, criticism of others etc. Left - over food here refers to food left by those other than Guru. Vasishtha also - ‘Left - over food of those other than Guru is not fit to eat’; ‘If disciple is diseased, he can eat the entire left - over food of Guru.’

18. In Madhaviyam - The disciple should not look in mirror; wash teeth; he can eat the left - over food of Guru as medicine, not out of desire.

19. Aapasthambha - One can eat the left - over food of father and elder brother.

20. Gautama decries eating the left - over food of the wife and sons of Guru in view of the common rule that one should treat Guru’s wife and sons like Guru himself - The disciple should not do the following: - eat the left - over food of Guru’s wife and sons, bathe them, decorate them, wash their feet, massaging the body and touch their feet while prostrating.

21. Gautama again - He should avoid honey, meat, perfumes, flower, sleep during day, applying collyrium to eyes, applying oil, cart, footwear, umbrella, desire, anger, greed, delusion, talking too much, instrumental music, bathing in hot water etc., washing teeth, glee, dance, singing, speaking of others’ faults and fear. He should also avoid within the sight of Guru, wrapping cloth etc. around neck, sitting with one leg on top of the other thigh, leaning against wall, pillar etc., sitting with legs stretched, spitting, laughing, yawning and clicking fingers.

22. Manu - He can be with head tonsured, matted hair and tuft, or matted hair only.

23. Katyayana - Brahmacharis should tonsure hair along with tuft till Samavarthanam (completion of Gurukula course). This applies to Samavedis.

24. Sumantu - Brahmachari’s dharmas are brahmacharya, tapas, bhikshacharanam, Agnikarya in both sandhyas, study of Vedas and service to Guru. He should do all that a disciple can do and a servant can do and then stand beside Guru. He should be a servant, doing everything for Guru, being capable in all activities. One cannot attain swarga only by bath, homa and service to Agni, but only with worship of Guru.

25. Yama - Brahmachari should not be self - ruled, but under the control of Guru; he should get up before Guru in his home; go to bed after him. He should conquer the generative organ, stomach, sleep, laziness, anger and (lure of) money. He should avoid perfume, flowers, umbrella, bed, washing teeth, old food etc., artificial salt, scraping off dirt while bathing, talking with sudras and disrespecting Guru.

26. Vyasa - He should not eat if Guru has not eaten; not drink if Guru has not drunk. He should not sit while Guru is standing and sleep when Guru has not slept. He should not step on flowers cast off by Guru, his bed, ceremonial footwear, ordinary footwear, seat and shadow etc. He should learn Veda in time till Guru is satisfied. He should never sit on Guru’s seat of darbha, plank, ceremonial seat and bed.

27. Samvartha - If brahmachari sleeps during day when he is not diseased, he should worship Surya in Parva time after bath and chant Gayatri 108 times. One who eats the same food without doing bhikshacharanam while he is healthy or eats without taking bath should chant Gayatri 108 times. There is no rule regulating the number of handfuls of food for brahmachari. For other asramas, there is regulation of 32, 16 and 8 handfuls of food. If brahmachari eats without doing ‘Aaposanam’ (sipping of water with mantra) when there is no emergency, or if he talks while eating, he should chant Gayatri 108 times.

28. Haaritha - The disciple for whom upanayanam has been performed should stay in Guru’s home. He should not do anything disagreeable to Guru with mind, speech or body, while in Guru’s home. He should observe brahmacharya, sleeping on ground and worship of Agni. He should make available to Guru water - pot, grass for cow and firewood. He should learn Veda as per rules; one who studies without rules does not get the fruit of his study. The evil man, who does any dharma without observing the rules, does not get the fruit of the dharma. Hence for obtaining the fruit of study, brahmachari should observe Vedavratas. He should learn from Guru all achara like ‘soucham’ (purity). Getting up from bed before the Guru, he should give him clay, toothstick, cloth etc. and after Guru’s bath, he should bathe like a staff.

29. Narada - The disciple should serve the Guru with a pure heart till he learns all vidya. He should behave with Guru’s wife and sons as with Guru.

30. Haaritha - He should not mount horse, elephant, chariot, and bull; not cross large rivers; not do any big act of bravado or disagreeable act.

31. Aapasthambha - He should be under the full control of Acharya. Even if ordered by Acharya, he should not do despicable acts. He should do acts good for Guru; he should not speak against Guru. In Guru’s presence he should sit on the floor. He should lie down on the floor. He should not eat food kept for Devatas or Pitrus. He should not consume salty, caustic food, liquor and meat; not sleep during day; not see drama; not go to place of gambling, crowded places in utsavas (religious feativals) etc.; not carry tales among people. He should stay in place not crowded by people. He should not act as per his wish in places where Guru moves about more. He should speak only necessary words to women. He should have patience, control of sense organs, freedom from sloth, shame and firm courage.

32. Sankar - Without learning Vedas and Vedangas, he should not learn other vidyas.

33. Haaritha - The vidya for brahmana is Veda alone; Vedangas are meant for understanding the meaning of Vedas.

34. Laghuvyasa - To one who does not know the meaning of Veda, learning Veda and Sastras is a waste like eating rice - husk. The animal carrying load does not enjoy the benefit of it; so also brahmana not knowing meaning of Veda does not get the benefit of Veda. Like Gnana and Karma jointly becoming a good means for mukti (liberation), knowledge of Veda and meaning of Veda together is the best; if they are separated, it is not good. Better than learning all four Vedas without knowing their meaning is learning only a small portion of Veda along with its meaning.

35. In Chandrika - One should always listen to Dharmasastra, Sabdasastra (grammar), Puranas, Itihasas and stories of Gods and great souls.

36. Vasishtha - One should learn that Veda, as stipulated in which his samskaras like upanayana were performed. If he leaves that Veda, he will be ‘fallen’. He should not do karma mentioned in another Veda. One who does like that is called ‘Sakharanda’.

37. Narada on the means of getting vidya - One who is afraid of debt as snake, satisfaction of sense organs as naraka and women as Rakshasis will get vidya. The cause of termites building a large pit out of small particles of clay is not their strength; but their effort. Vidya must be learnt gradually; distance covered gradually; hill climbed gradually.

38. Narada on impediments in getting vidya - Gambling, interest in listening to stories, attachment to drama, desire for women, laziness and sleep - these six are impediments to vidya. Service to Guru, giving much money and teaching vidya known to him - these three are the means of getting vidya; fourth means is not seen.

39. Yama on rules for teaching vidya - Guru should always get up in the morning, wash his teeth, bathe and do homa and then teach his disciples.

40. Gautama - Guru should teach without beating the disciple. If it is not possible to teach by warning with words, he should beat with thin rope or piece of bamboo.

41. Manu - If wife, son, servant, disciple or own brother commits mistake, they should be beaten with thin rope or piece of bamboo. Beating can be on the back and never on the head. One who beats contrary to this will get the sin of a thief.

42. Yama - Guru, who does not teach his disciple even after his stay for one year, gets the disciple’s sin.

43. Manu - Tapas (penance) in the form of performance of his prescribed karmas and Brahmagnana are the best means for Liberation for a brahmana. He removes his sins by tapas; he attains Liberation through Brahmagnana. Brahmana, who has been given samskaras like upanayana, should live in Gurukula as prescribed and earn tapas in the form of discipline. Brahmana should observe many rules and vratas (ritual vows) like Prajapatya and learn Veda together with Upanishads and Vedangas.

44. Aapasthambha - In the rules laid down in this ‘Discussion of Dharmas of Brahmachari’, the term ‘tapas’ has been used. If one transgresses these rules, Veda slips away from him and also his son. Even if used in Brahmayagnam etc., it becomes useless; this is the meaning. It causes hardship; it becomes the cause for naraka. It reduces lifespan also. As men in Kaliyuga transgress rules, no Rishis (seers of mantras) come up; meaning is that this is because transgression of rules is unavoidable.

78. Veda Vratas

1. Aapasthambha - To retain Vedas in oneself , vratas (religious vows) must be observed. Prajapatyam, Soumyam, Aagneyam and Vaisvadevam are the vratas.

2. Bharadvaja - We explain the commencement and completion of vratas. In Uttarayana in Suklapaksha in Parva in auspicious star, vratas, viz. Hotruvratam, Upanishadvratam, Sukriyam and Godanam must be done.

3. Bodhayana - There are four Vedavratas: Hotruvratam, Sukriyavratam, Upanishadvratam and Aaranyavratam. In Uttarayana in Suklapaksha, Sukriyavratam must be commenced. Godanam to be done in 16th year.

4. Aasvalayana - There are four Vedavratas: Mahanamni, Mahavratam, Upanishad and Godanam; to be done in Uttarayana in Suklapaksha in auspicious star. Godanam to be done in 16th year.

5. Garga - Savitravratam, Aaranyakavratam and Vedavratas must be done as per rules; Veda should be studied after that. To be done in Uttarayana in Suklapaksha in auspicious star on ‘Adhyayana’ day. The stars prescribed for Chowla apply to this also.

6. Bharadvaja - In Uttarayana in Suklapaksha in Parva in forenoon, four Vedavratas must be done. In Dakshinayanam in Sravana month in Parva, Soumyavrata may be done. Vratas like Prajapatyam may also be done.

7. Dattatreya - All four Vedavratas must be done. The stars prescribed for Chowla apply to this also; some think it is as for Upakarma; the same in other vratas.

8. Aapasthambha - Soumyavratam, also called Sukriyavratam must be done as per rules. The four vratas starting with Prajapatya may be done in one day. After commencing Prajapatyavratam, doing Vedic study and completing that vrata, one should commence Soumyavratam and complete the same; followed by commencement of Aagneyam and its completion; finally commencement of Vaisvadevam and its completion.

9. In Smrityarthasaram - From upanayanam till upakarma, Savitrivratam must be observed; then, Vedavratas and Aaranyakavratam. In every vrata, tonsuring of head is required. If not done, 3,6 or 12 kruchras must be observed and then the vrata again.

79. Repeat Upanayanam

1. Aapasthambha - One who has left deerskin, mekhala (girdle), staff or bhikshacharanam (begging alms) is fit for repeat upanayanam as per rules.

2. Parasara - One who has left deerskin, mekhala (girdle), staff, bhikshacharanam (begging alms) or vratas is fit for repeat upanayanam.

3. Vyasa - One who goes to Sindhu, Souviram, Saurashtra, Chandala desas, Anga, vanga or Kalinga must undergo repeat upanayanam. If one goes to Himavatdesam, Kausika, Vindhya or western part of traditional desa for reason other than pilgrimage, repeat upanayanam is prayaschitta (expiation) for him.

4. In Adipurana - If brahmana goes to Saurashtra, Sindhu, Sauvira, Avantya or Dakshinapada, he should undergo repeat samskara.

5. Bodhayana - The following will spoil the vrata of brahmachari: He should not eat left - over food of anyone other than father or elder brother. He should not eat along with woman. He should avoid honey, meat, food in sraadham, food in place where baby has been delivered, milk of cow which has delivered within the last ten days, milk of pregnant cow, mushroom, resin, the burnt part of clarified butter, food in crowd, food from sudra and food from prostitute. If these are used, the previously performed upanayanam becomes null and void; repeat upanayanam is required.

6. Men of all three varnas have to undergo repeat upanayanam if they consume unknowingly liquor or urine or excreta.

7. If brahmachari does obsequies (Pretakarya) to anyone other than mother, father or Acharya, repeat upanayanam is required.

8. Manu - Men of all three varnas have to undergo repeat upanayanam if they consume unknowingly human urine, excreta or liquor. If brahmachari does obsequies (Pretakarya) to anyone other than mother, father or Acharya, he will lose brahmacharya.

9. Parasara - If he has consumed excreta or urine, he should observe Prajapatya kruchra for purity. By taking Panchagavyam after bath, he becomes pure. Know that this is prior to repeat upanayanam.

10. Vishnu in the same vein - If man of any of the three varnas consumes meat of pig, chicken or cow, he should undergo repeat upanayanam after Prayaschitta.

11. Yama - If brahmana consumes liquor or cow’s meat, he becomes pure by doing taptakruchram and repeat upanayanam.

12. Saatatapa - If brahmana consumes different forms of garlic or milk of camel, human, elephant, horse or ass, he should do taptakruchram and repeat upanayanam.

13. In Sangraham - If brahmana eats food from chandala unknowingly, he has to observe chandrayana. If he eats knowingly, he has to observe Abdakruchram. Repeat upanayanam is required in both cases.

14. In the matter of Aparakriya - In case one for whom Aparakriyas have been done returns from abroad, he has to be immersed in a pot of ghee, bathed and Jatakarma etc. must be done.

15. In Grihyaratnam - If brahmana goes to Anga, Vanga, kalinga, Saurashtra, Avanti and Mathsyam, he has to undergo repeat upanayanam. If it is for purpose of pilgrimage, there is no folly. If he consumes excreta or urine or liquor or if he crosses sea, repeat upanayanam is required. If he does obsequies to anyone other than father, mother’s father, Acharya, Upadhyaya or mother’s brother; or, if he consumes the left - over food of anyone other than father, elder brother and Acharya; or, if he consumes liquor, meat, food for corpse, polluted food, food from prostitute or food from sudra, brahmachari should undergo repeat upanayanam. If upanayanam has been performed for younger brother before elder brother, repeat upanayanam is required for him after the upanayanam of the elder is performed. If brahmachari unknowingly commits acts leading to his downfall as indicated by Maharishis, repeat upanayanam is required.

16. Manu says certain things have to be avoided in repeat upanayanam - Tonsure, mekhala, staff, bhikshacharanam and vratas must be dispensed with in repeat upanayanam. One need not also await suitable time like vasanta rtu etc.

17. In Samskaramanjari - Now we shall tell about repeat upanayanam. There is special feature in Samidhadhanam: it is done with mantra, ‘Punastvaditya:’. Then vratya prayaschitta homa with the two mantras, ‘yanma atmana:, punaragni:’; then Pakvanna homa with mantra, ‘saptate agne’. From ‘svishtakrut’ upto ‘Denuvarapradanam’, all the rest is same as first upanayanam.

18. Now another method - Guru’s left - over food should at least be consumed. Dakshinadanam, mekhala etc. are dispensed with. The rest should be done as told in one’s Grihyam. Different rule - After doing upto ‘paridi’ and doing ‘Aadanam’ of palasa samit, vratya prayaschitta should be done.

19. Yet another method - If one consumes ghee, sanctified by chant of Gayatri 100 times by brahmanas, he is deemed to have observed prayaschitta.

20. Among all these various views, understand the regulation that repeat upanayanam has to be done with due regard to the severity of the cause of it.

80. Duration of Period of Brahmacharya

1. Manu tells about the end of the period of brahmacharya in accord with the efficiency of the brahmachari in study of Veda - Brahmachari should observe the vrata (vow) of studying three Vedas from Guru for a period of 36 years, 18 years, 9 years or till study is complete.

2. Yama - He should live in Gurukula for 12, 24 or 36 years; for each Veda, he should observe vrata.

3. Yagnavalkya - He should observe 12 or 5 years for each Veda. Some say that the period is till end of study of Vedas. Godanam should be done in 16th year.

4. Bodhayana - Brahmacharya should be observed for 48 years, 24 or 12 years or one year per Kandam. As lifespan is uncertain and Aadanam is to be done befor greying of hair, Brahmacharya has to be observed at least till absorption of Veda.

5. Aapasthambha - Brahmachari, having undergone upanayanam, should live in Gurukula for 48, 36 or 12 years. The minimum is 12 years; this is for person who is not capable.

6. Devala also – Brahmacharya vrata should be observed for 48 years. If not capable, the period should be 24 or 12 years.

7. Gautama - Brahmacharya has to be observed for 12 years for learning one Veda. In the case of learning many Vedas, period of 12 years is required per Veda or at least till completion of study of that Veda.

8. Bharadvaja - Elders say that brahmacharyam is for 48 years after upanayanam. Some say that it is till completion of study of Veda. Some say that it is till Godanam.

9. Daksha - Brahmacharya should be observed till Veda is absorbed from Guru and Vedavratas are in force. Then ‘snanakarma’ (ritual bath at Samavarthanam) should be done and he should become grihastha.

10. Vyasa - Brahmachari should learn Veda as per rules with meaning, observe vratas properly and do Samavarthanam. After studying one Veda, observing Vedavratas and offering dakshina to Guru, brahmachari should take leave of Guru if not capable (of further study) and do Samavarthanam and marry; or take sanyasa.

81. Determination of Godanam

1. Garga - Godanam should be performed in 16th year from birth in Uttarayana in Purnima on tithis and days suitable for Chowlam. If Vedic study is completed before 16th year, Godanam can be done at that time, followed by Samavarthanam.

2. Prachetas - Godanam should be performed in 16th year or earlier; or in any year as desired. It should be done before ‘snanam’ (ritual bath at Samavarthanam).

3. Bharadvaja - Godanam should be performed in 16th year, followed by brahmacharya for one year. In Godana vrata, Agni is Devata.

4. Aapasthambha - Godanam may be done in different star; it should be done in 16th year. In Godana vrata, Agni is Devata.

5. Laghuvyasa - After having learnt Vedas like Rik, knowing their meaning and observing vratas as per rules, one should do Samavarthanam.

6. All this is in respect of one who is capable of achieving all of this at the same time. If not capable, he can complete vratas at least and do Samavarthanam. Yagnavalkya also - After completing study of either Veda or vrata or both and offering dakshina to Guru, ‘snanam’ should be done with his permission.

7. Hence it is clear that ‘snathakas’ are of three kinds. Haaritha also - ‘Snathakas’ are of three kinds - vidyasnathaka, vratasnathaka and vidyavratasnataka. One who does ‘snanam’ after completing Vedic study without completing vratas is vidyasnathaka; One who does ‘snanam’ after completing vratas without completing Vedic study is vratasnathaka; One who completes Vedic study as well as vratas and then does ‘snanam’ is vidyavratasnataka. It may therefore be seen in Smritichandrika that vratasnataka should complete Vedic study and understand meaning of Veda after marriage.

8. Garga - After observing brahmacharya vrata for 36 years, 12, 6 or 3 years, or 1 year and 6 months, or 3 months or 12 days or at least 3 days and doing Godana vrata, Samavarthanam should be done.

82. Rules for Snathaka

1. Vyasa - Brahmana must serve Guru, attain vidya and offer cow as dakshina to Guru and, with his permission, do ‘snanam’ as per rules. The Godana mentioned here includes also anything, which pleases the Guru.

2. Manu - Offering one or more of the following as far as possible - land, gold, cow, horse, umbrella, footwear, foodgrains, clothes, vegetables - to Guru, brahmachari should earn his pleasure. There is no compulsion to give anything to Guru before ‘snanam’. While doing ‘snanam’, he should certainly give dakshina to Guru as per his capacity.

3. Laghu Haaritha - There is nothing in this world, which will rid the disciple of his debt to Guru, even if Guru had only taught him only one letter from Veda.

4. This danam of dakshina to Guru is necessary for one who enters another asrama; as Smriti says, ‘One should be in the asrama of his choice after giving dakshina to Guru’.

5. Gautama says that in case one is incapable of giving dakshina, he can do ‘snanam’ with Guru’s permission - After completing education, one must ask Guru as to what he should offer as dakshina. He should then do as Guru instructs or, with his permission, do ‘snanam’.

83. Dharma of Naishtika (Perpetual) Brahmachari

1. Daksha - Brahmachari is of two kinds according to Dakshasastra - the first is Upakurvana and the second, Naishtika.

2. Of them, the dharma of Upakurvana has been explained. Now the dharma of Naishtika will be set out. Yagnavalkya - Brahmachari, who is Naishtika, should live with the Acharya only. In Acharya’s absence, he should live in the presence of Acharya’s son or wife or Agni. If he follows this rule, keeps his body under control and conquers the sense organs, he will go to Brahmaloka. He will not be born again on earth. Naishtika is one who observes these rules till death. He should live throughout his life with the Acharya et al without exercising any freedom.

3. Manu - If he wishes to live in Gurukula throughout his life, he should serve the Guru with discipline till his death. One who serves this way will go to the undecaying Brahmaloka. In the event of death of the Acharya, he should live with Guru’s son, who has vidya, or with Guru’s wife or Guru’s Sapinda (paternal relative), as if he were living with Guru. In the absence of any of them, he should always be engaged in bath, seat and walking around and serve Agni with homa and ready his body for union with Brahman. One who observes brahmacharya this way without fail will reach high state; he will not be born again on earth.

4. Haaritha - Brahmana, whose tongue, generative organ, stomach and hands are under control, should spend his life in brahmacharya with his Acharya in a way similar to Sanyasi. In the absence of Acharya, he should live with his son, disciple or family man. For him, marriage or Sanyasa is not prescribed. If he observes these rules without indolence, he will not be born again on earth after his death. One, who serves the Guru with proper observance of Naishtika brahmacharya, will receive Brahmavidya and Liberation as its fruit.

5. Brihaspati - The Naishtika brahmachari, who observes Sandhyavandanam, Agnikaryam, study of Veda, bhikshacharanam, sleeping on ground and compassion till death, will go to Brahmaloka.

6. Vasishtha - He should have his speech under control, eat the food from alms in the 4th, 6th or 8th kala, be subservient to Guru and wear matted hair or at least matted tuft. When Guru walks, he should walk behind him; when Guru is seated, he should keep standing. He should be keen on Vedic study, inform Guru of the alms got and eat with his permission. He should refrain from lying down on cot, washing teeth, applying collyrium to eyes, applying oil and lying down in daytime; he should take ‘trishavana’ bath.

7. Yama - Those, who observe Naishtika brahmacharya till death, reach Brahmaloka; they are not born again on earth.

8. Haaritha - Brahmanas, who observe brahmacharya, become immortal after death.

9. This statement refers to Brahmanishtha - one who is intent only on Brahman. Because Sruti says, ‘All the four asramis reach meritorious world; of them, one who is Brahmanishtha, attains immortality from which there is no return to earth.

10. Vishnu says that this Naishtika brahmacharya is compulsory for hunchback et al - Brahmacharya is a must for hunchback, dwarf, blind by birth, eunuch, lame and the seriously ill till the end of their lives; no doubt.

11. in Chandrika - As the lame et al lack limbs and efficiency, they have no right to karma; hence sastra prescribes Naishtika brahmacharya for them.

12. It is not that Naishtika brahmacharya is prescribed only for hunchback et al and not for others. Because if it is so, the following statements of Vyasa et al setting out options will face contradiction: ‘Brahmachari may marry if he wishes to become grihastha; or, he may spend his life in brahmacharya, making sankalpa (resolve) accordingly; or, he may become vaikhanasa or sanyasi as he wishes‘. Naishtikatva is not prescribed for hunchback et al with partiality. One should not entertain doubt that in case Naishtikatva applies to others also, it will contradict the Sruti statement, ‘Agnihotram should be done till the end of life’. This staement of Sruti is not in this context. There is indeed no contradiction because the Sruti passage applies to those who enter Grihasthasrama because of desire for wife etc.

13. Jabali also - If one desires Grihasthasrama, he should do Agnihotram throughout his life.

14.  One should not think that the Naishtikatva specified in Smriti is adversely affected by the requirement of Agnihotra in Sruti. Because Naishtikatva also is rooted in the Sruti passage, ‘The second type of Brahmachatri should spend his life in Gurukula only’.

15. It is incorrect to say that if there are two kinds of brahmacharis, the asramas become five in number and this will result in contradiction to the statement, ‘Asramas are four’ by Aapasthambha and others. Just like Agnihotra is of two kinds, ‘nitya’ (compulsory every day) and ‘kamya (as desired), the difference being based only on sankalpa (resolve), here also the difference among brahmacharis is relevant, being based on resolve only. Hence Aapasthambha explains certain dharmas - Naishtika should stay till his death in Gurukula with the discipline of upakurvana, performing Samidhadhanam etc.

16. Gautama - The discipline of Samidhadhanam, bhikshacharanam etc. prescribed for upakurvana applies to Naishtika also. Gurukula stay is till death. He should serve the Guru and spend rest of his time chanting Veda. If Guru is not there, he should live with Guru’s son; if he is also not there, he should live with Guru’s disciple, who is old in age and vidya, or Agni. Naishtika, living thus and having conquered sense organs, will go to Brahmaloka.

17. Manu on conqueror of sense organs - He is said to have conquered sense organs, who is not affected by happiness or sorrow respectively on hearing praise and criticism, touching silk and wool, seeing agreeable and disagreeable forms, tasting sweet and bitter food and smelling pleasant and unpleasant things.

18. Manu again - If brahmachari discharges semen in dream state not under the influence of lust, he should bathe, worship Surya and chant the Rik ‘Punarmam’ three times. He should sleep alone everywhere; he should not discharge semen. If he does so knowingly, he is said to have spoiled his brahmacharya vrata. I shall now mention the eleven sense organs listed by the wise ancients. Out of ears, skin, eyes, tongue, nose, organ of excretion, generative organ, hands, feet and speech, the first five are sense organs of cognition; the balance five are sense organs of action. The eleventh sense organ is called ‘Mind’. By its nature of sankalpa (resolve), mind drives both the above kinds of sense organs to act. By conquering mind, all the ten sense organs are conquered. Like a charioteer controlling the horses, one, who knows the faults inherent in things, should strive to control the sense organs, which tend to move among worldly things that carry him away. If the sense organs are allowed to attach to things, he commits folly; if they are controlled well, he attains the goal.

19. Samvartha - If brahmachari spills semen purposely, he should do ‘Avakirni’ prayaschitta; if it is not done knowingly, he is purified by bath.

20. Bodhayana - If brahmachari unites with woman, he is called ‘Avakirni’. He should do homa of a donkey. Devata for the animal and ‘Purodasa’ (oblation) is Nirruti or Rakshas or Yama. ‘Prachidravadhanam’ must be done from generative organ. Heart etc. should be offered in water in homa. It means that the rest should be done in ‘Loukikagni’.

21. Vasishtha - If brahmachari unites with woman, he should do homa of donkey with Rakshas as Devata in ‘Loukikagni’ in forest or cross - roads. Or he should do homa of charu (oblation of rice) to Nirruti as Devata.

22. Aapasthambha - ‘Avakirni’ should do homa of donkey to Nirruti as Devata as per the rules for ‘Sthalipaka’. The balance of Havis (material offered as oblation) should be eaten by sudra.

23. ‘Avakirni’ should do homa of donkey, blind in one eye, to Nirruti as Devata as per rules of ‘Sthalipaka’ in the night in cross - roads.

24. Haaritha - ‘Avakirni’ should do homa of donkey as per rules of ‘Sthalipaka’ to Nirruti as Devata in cross - roads. ‘Srapanam’ (placing) on ground of animal and ‘Purodasa’. ‘Avadhanas’ should be offered in water in homa; then homa with ghee.

25. Gautama - ‘Avakirni’ should do homa of donkey to Nirruti as Devata in cross - roads. He should wear its skin as dress with the hairy side on top, carry red coloured pot of clay and beg alms in seven homes saying ‘Give alms to me, Avakirni’. He becomes purified if he observes this procedure for one year.

26. Manu - If he eats that food from alms from seven homes only once a day and bathes thrice, he becomes pure after one year.

27. Samvartha - If brahmachari unites with woman out of the passion of lust, he should observe ‘Prajapatya kruchram’ for the whole of one year with discipline. He should also do homa with ‘Purodasa’ in Parva days. He should also do homa of ghee in Agni with all homa mantras.

28. Sandilya - ‘Avakirni’ brahmachari becomes pure if he does yaga with donkey and eats food from alms with discipline for one year. This is the same for all the three varnas. The period of one year applies to union with vaisya woman.

29. Sankha and Likhita - Brahmachari should take ‘trishavana’ bath for one year if he has united with vaisya woman; if it is with kshatriya woman, the period is two years; if it is with brahmana woman, the period is three years.

30. The rest of Prayaschitta will be covered in ‘Prayaschitta Prakaranam’.

84. Dharmas of Snathaka (one who has taken ceremonial bath after completion of Gurukula study)

1. Manu - If snathaka suffers from hunger, he can ask for money from kshatriya king, yajamana who performs yaga or disciple; not from others. This is the restriction of sastra. A capable snathaka brahmana should for no reason suffer from hunger. If he has money, he should not wear dirty or torn clothes. He should shave his head and moustache, cut his nails, keep his sense organs under control, wear white clothes and be attentive to Vedic study and actions beneficial to him. He should also wear bamboo staff, water - pot, upavita, handful of darbha grass and gold ear - rings.

2. Vyasa - He should wear bamboo staff, undergarment, upper cloth, two yagnopavitas, water - pot, umbrella, turban, footwear, gold ear - rings and handful of darbha grass. He should keep his hair shaved, be clean and attentive to Vedic study. He may wear flower on the outside of tuft of hair. Wearing white cloth and perfume, he should have presentable appearance.

3. In Smritiratnam - He should decorate himself as per his capacity by wearing white clothes, sandal - paste, flowers, perfumes, tooth cleaning and ornaments.

4. Bodhayana - He should wear undergarment, upper cloth, bamboo staff, water - pot, two upavitas, turban, footwear of leather and umbrella.

5. Gautama - Snathaka should always be clean, of good smell and take regular bath. By prescribing good smell, wearing of flowers with no smell is forbidden.

6. Gobila also - Garland with no smell should not be worn, except for golden garland.

7. Vridha Vasishtha - O King! Everything mentioned for Chowla in ‘snanakarma’ should be followed. It should be done in auspicious day and lagna. He should do homa to Agni of samit (fuelwood sticks) of trees fit for yagna, or paddy, barley etc. with vyahritis or all homamantras. He should go to holy tirthas, eat little food and refrain from eightfold intercourse with woman. The eight parts are: thinking of women, speaking of them, playing with them, looking with longing at them, talking secrets with them, resolving in mind (to do these things), attempting (to do these things) and deriving pleasure in actual intercourse.

8. In Katakagrihya - ‘Snanakarma’ should be done on the day before the marriage. It can be done on any day before marriage. If done on the day of marriage, bath with water and ‘sakalahoma’ are not there. This is upto seeing the stars. Marriage should be done only at night. No marriage in daytime on the day of ‘snanam’.

9. In Sangraham - If one who has done ‘snana’ dies before marriage, he will not reach good state. Hence one whose marriage is imminent should do ‘snanakarma’.

10. Daksha - Brahmana should not be without asrama even for one day. If he does so, he should do prayaschitta.

85. Marriage

1. Vishnu - One should study Veda with effort, know its meaning, do samavarthanam and marry a girl of auspicious marks.

2. Manu - Brahmana should do ‘snanam’ with Guru’s permission, do samavarthanam as prescribed and marry a girl of same varna and with auspicious marks. He should not marry girl of tawny hair and eyes, with extra parts, with prolonged disease, hairless on body, with too much hair on body, of severe speech and red coloured. He should not marry girl with name of star, tree, river, lowly person, mountain, bird, snake and ‘dasa’ or of terrible name. He should marry girl of parts not less, sweet name, walking like swan and elephant, having thin hair on body and head and thin teeth and soft features.

3. Yama - He should not marry girl who is very short or tall, very thin or fat, of red eyes, too white in complexion and who will be cause of husband’s death.

4. Narada - Girls with prolonged disease, serious disease, less parts, one who has united with man earlier, bold and one who loves another man are defective. Hence one should not marry them.

5. Vyasa - One should not marry girl with moustache, manly appearance, hard tone of speech, very thin, voice of crow, uncontrolled eyes and round eyes. One should not marry girl with hairy legs, raised ankles and having depression in cheeks while laughing. One should not marry girl with cruel shine, white nails, red eyes, fat hands and legs, is too short or tall, with joined eyelashes, teeth with too much gap, terrible face, fat calf areas of legs, is very hairy on body, one of twins, with bad teeth, depressed eyelashes and is cat - eyed. One should not marry girl who has no relatives, is diseased from birth, born in lowly family, with too much hair or no hair, too black, red coloured, with extra parts, less parts, impure, hairy on body, hunchback, diseased, evil - natured, evil - speaking and having no parents.

6. Saatatapa - One, who marries a girl with the voice of swan, colour of clouds and eyes like honey, will grow.

7. Manu on the rules of marriage with girl of same varna - The girl eligible for marriage with brahmana should not be ‘sapinda’ of mother and not of same gotra as of father and not have united with men earlier. One who has equal ‘pinda’ is ‘sapinda’; one who does not have equal ‘pinda’ is ‘asapinda’. ‘Pinda’ is body; ‘Sapinda’ nature comes through contact of body part. How - For son, ‘sapinda’ nature with father exists through contact of body part. In the same way ‘sapinda’ nature exists with father’s father et al through contact with father’s body part. In the same way ‘sapindyam’ (sapinda nature) exists with mother through contact with her body part.; also with mother’s father et al through mother’s contact. In the same way ‘sapidyam’ exists with mother’s sister, mother’s brother, father’s brother and father’s sister et al through body contact. This also applies to husband and wife as they produce a new body. This extends to the wives of brothers because of commonality of body contact. Hence wherever the term ‘sapinda’ is used, commonality of body contact, either direct or through family history, is to be understood. The commonality of body contact is known from Srutis also. In Kathopanishad - ‘This body has five sheaths. Bone, tendon and bone marrow are got from father and skin, flesh and blood from mother’. Sruti passages like ‘Angadangat’ are also evidences.

8. Aapasthambha - Father appears as if he were produced separately.

9. Vignanesvariyam states: ‘If ‘sapindyam’ is to be established through ‘pindas’ given in sraadhams, ‘sapindyam’ will not apply to mother’s family, brother, father’s brother et al. Hence if we go by the overall effect and accept traditional meaning of the term, we would have missed the effect of part.

10. In Smritichandrika - In the karma of dana of ‘pinda’, ‘sapindyam’ comes to the giver and the recipients of pinda and the recipients of ‘Lepa’ (offering of remnants of food sticking to hand). The three ancestors starting from the fourth from father are recipients of ‘Lepa’; the three starting from father are recipients of pinda. The giver of pinda is the seventh. ‘Sapindyam’ exists among these seven persons mutually. If ‘sapindyam’ is taken based on pinda, one should not think that ‘sapindyam’ will not happen with brother, father’s brother et al. It is only that the commonality of karma is associated with commonality of aim.

11. Sarvabhouma on this - By saying thus, even if ‘sapindyam’ is accepted with brother, father’s brother et al, sapindyam will not come for one’s daughter, sister, mother’s brother and his daughter because commonality of karma does not exist. Then passages like ‘Panchamat saptamat’ will become meaningless. Hence ‘sapindyam’ by mentioning ‘Lepabhaja:’ refers to the nature of sharers of wealth (dhanabhagis) and doers of Aparakriyas et al described by Manu, Gautama et al in passages like ‘Anantarassapindoya:’ and ‘Putrabhave’.

12. There could be an extension of this saying that if ‘sapindyam’ is determined based on commonality of contact of body part, either direct or through family history, everyone may somehow have commonality of contact of body part with everyone else in this beginningless samsara (cycle of births and deaths). This faulty argument has to be dismissed thrugh the words of Manu et al.

13. Manu also - Sapindyam stops with the seventh person in the line.

14. Gautama - One who is going to be grihastha should marry a girl, who is equal to him in jati and family, has not been given to anyone else and is younger than him. One should marry from family not having the same Pravara (line of ancestors). One should marry beyond seven generations in line of father or the actual progenitor and five generations in line of mother.

15. Sankar - One should marry girl who is equal to him, does not have the same Pravara and is beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father.

16. Vasishtha - One should marry girl who does not have the same Pravara, has not united with a man earlier, is younger and is beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father.

17. Paitinasi - One should marry girl who does not have the same Pravara and is beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father.

18. Vishnu - One can marry girl who is not of same gotra, who does not have the same Pravara and is beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father.

19. Yagnavalkya - One who followed brahmacharya without violation of rules, should marry girl, who has good distinctive marks, has not been accepted by another man before, who is pleasing to the mind and the eyes, not ‘sapinda’, is younger in age and eats lesser food, is free from disease, has brother, does not have the same gotra and Pravara and is beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father. Aapasthambha stipulates: ‘If one marries a girl, with whom mind and eyes get attached, dharma etc. will grow’.

20. Brihaspati on lesser age - A 30 year - old brahmana can marry a 10 year - old girl; a 21 year - old boy can marry a 7 year - old girl.

21. Angiras - One should not accept a girl, who is older in age or of larger body build. One should accept a girl younger by 2,3 or 5 years.

22. Vishnu - One can accept a girl three times younger; 24 year - old boy can accept 8 year - old girl. One should not accept a girl younger only by one year; hence it is clear that accepting girl younger only by months is forbidden.

23. Narada - A boy, wishing for long life, should not marry a girl of lesser parts, extra parts, taller than him, older than him and diseased. ‘Free from disease’ refers to eight major diseases: Wind, spleen enlargement, bladder - stone, leprosy, dropsy, fistula, archas and diarrhoea. The qualification of having brother is due to fear of dharma of ‘putrika’ (daughter’s son).

24. Manu on this - One should not marry a girl, who has no brother or whose father is unknown, due to the doubt of ‘putrikadharma’. This shows that even due to the sankalpa (resolve) in father’s mind, the girl becomes ‘putrika’. Hence Gautama says that some opine that even due to the sankalpa (resolve) in father’s mind, the girl becomes ‘putrika’. Manu on ‘putrika’ - A father who has no son, while giving away his daughter in danam, should make sankalpa that ‘the son to be born of this daughter of mine shall do my sraadham etc.’, do danam accordingly and make her ‘putrika’.

25. Vasishtha also - The father should say, ‘I am giving you this decorated daughter of mine, who has no brother. The son to be born of her should become my son’ or, ‘This daughter herself is my son’.

26. Meaning of one whose Arsha and gotra are not the same - Arsha is Pravara; gotra is well known. Hence it means that the girl should not have equal Pravara or gotra, as smriti says so.

27. Bodhayana - Pravaras where the same Rishi’s name appears are equal Pravaras; except for Angiras and Bhrigu. Bodhayana also talks more about Bhrigu and Angiras groups - Marriage should not be done by people with three Pravaras if two Pravaras are equal; Marriage should not be done by people with five Pravaras if three Pravaras are equal.

28. Here as it states ‘Asapindam’, daughter of father’s sister or mother’s sister or mother’s brother is forbidden. ‘Asagotram’ means that even if ‘Sapindyam’ is not there and she is born in a different lineage, equal gotra is forbidden. ‘Asamanapravaram’ means that even if ‘Sapindyam’ is not there and gotra is not equal, equal Pravara is forbidden; e.g. though there is difference in gotra of Yaska, Vadula and Mounamoha, there is equality owing to Pravaras - Bhargava, Vaidahavya and Savedasa.

29. Meaning of ‘Panchamat saptamadurdhvam’ - Add: ‘‘Sapindyam’ ceases beyond 5th generation in line of mother and 7th generation in line of father.’ Hence the term ‘sapinda’ determines meaning based on the power of part like the word ‘pankaja’. Hence 6 ancestors starting from father are sapindas. Future 6 generations starting from son are sapindas. Himself is the seventh. If there is difference in child, calculation has to be done from the person from whom difference arises. Add everywhere: till 7th. There is no sense of wife with a girl who is sapinda or of equal gotra or Pravara. Vignaneswara says that even if sense of wife is there with diseased etc. girl, it is useless. Vignaneswara et al have determined that the statement of Vasishtha, ‘For unmarried women, ‘sapindyam’ is known to be for three generations’ refers to ‘Aasoucha’ (impurity).

30. Some think that the girl born in the gotra of one’s mother also should not be married, based on Saatatapasmriti, ‘If one marries daughter of mother’s brother, girl born in mother’s gotra and girl of equal pravara and unites with her, he should observe chandrayanam’ and Vyasasmriti, ‘Some say that girl from mother’s gotra is not to be married’.

31. In Akhandadarsam - Keeping ‘kutastha’ in the centre and counting from him on both sides, one can marry the 8th generation girl beyond 7 generations in father’s line. In the same way, keeping kutastha in the centre, one can marry 6th generation girl beyond 5 generations in mother’s line.

32. As it is acceptable thus to many smritis, it ie established that marriage is suitable only beyond 5 and 7 generations and not within that limit. Narada also - Girl within 5 and 7 generations in mother’s and father’s lines respectively, or girl of same gotra or of equal Pravara is not to be married.

33. Vishnu - One who marries girl within 5 and 7 generations in mother’s and father’s lines respectively, or girl of same gotra is considered to have united with Guru’s wife.

34. Vyasa’s statement, ‘Girl of the 5th generation in mother’s line and 7th in father’s line can be married as per rules’ means that girl beyond that limit can be married. Hence Marichi - ‘Though those who marry girls of the 5th and 7th generations observe good karmas, they become ‘fallen’ and get sudra nature.’

35. Manu - If one unites with daughter of father’s sister, his own sister, or daughter of mother’s sister or brother, he should observe chandrayanam. A wise man should not marry these three persons; as these three are gnatis, one should not unite with them; one who unites will become ‘fallen’.

36. Vyasa - If birth and name are unknown, one can marry without doubt. One must attentively avoid sapindas of mother. (In Kaliyuga) Brahmanas will lose wisdom and sinfully marry daughter of mother’s brother, daughter of father’s sister and girl who has been purchased.

37. Saatatapa - I shall tell the prayaschitta for the fool, who marries girl of same gotra or of equal Pravara. Not considering her as wife, he should protect her as mother. If he abandons her, he should observe atikruchra.

38. Aapasthambha - If one unites with girl of same gotra or of equal Pravara, he will lose his brahmana nature. The son born of her will be chandala (outcaste).

39. In Kalpasara - One who has married girl of same gotra unknowingly, should nourish her as mother. After observing chandrayanam, he should marry another girl. If son is born of girl of same gotra due to ignorance, he should observe Abdakruchram and padakruchram and, at the end of vrata, he should peform two oblations of ‘mindahuti’. The son born of her is free from fault; he will belong to Kasyapa gotra. One who marries the above girl knowingly should observe the prayaschitta for one who united with his Guru’s wife. The son born of her is chandala; not fit for any karma.

40. In Smrityarthasara - One who marries and unites with girl of same gotra knowingly should observe the prayaschitta for one who united with his Guru’s wife. The son born of her is chandala. The man should nourish his wife as mother. If the marriage and union occur due to ignorance, purity occurs from chandrayanam. The son born of her will belong to Kasyapa gotra.

41. Aapasthambha - One should not give his daughter in marriage to boy of same gotra; also not to relatives of her mother like the son of mother’s brother et al.

42. In Parasara Madhaviyam - The sons and daughters of sister of one’s fathar’s father or mother and brother of father’s mother are known as ‘Pitrubandhus’ (Relatives of father). The sons and daughters of sister of one’s mother’s father or mother and brother of mother’s mother are known as ‘Matrubandhus’ (Relatives of mother). Marriage with these Pitrubandhus and Matrubandhus is not in accord with sastras.

43. Sumanthu - If one marries daughter of father’s sister or mother’s sister, or daughter of mother’s brother or girl of same gotra as mother, he should observe chandrayanam. He should nourish her like mother.

44. Paitinasi - Daughter of father’s sister or mother’s sister or mother’s brother are equal to one’s sister; hence one should not marry them. One, who marries girl of same gotra or daughter of mother’s brother, should observe chandrayanam, even if he were equal to a Rishi.

45. Gautama - One who kills brahmana, drinks liquor, unites with Guru’s wife, unites with daughter in mother’s line within 5 generations or daughter in father’s line within 7 generations or one’s own sister, steals gold (wealth), is atheist with no belief in existence of God, who frequently does forbidden karmas knowingly and who does not abandon the ‘fallen’ and abandons those who are not ‘fallen’ due to hatred are all known as ‘fallen’ persons. Those who instigated others in evils are also ‘fallen’.

46. In Chandrika - The offsprings in the lineages of mother and father are not fit for marriage. One can marry girls beyond 5 generations in mother’s line and beyond 7 generations in father’s line.

47. Statements like ‘one can marry the fourth’ are in respect of other jatis.

48. Sankar - Children born of a brahmana, but with women of different jatis or different women of same jati are ‘sapindas’. They have separate ‘impurity’ (aasoucham). ‘Aasoucham’ will be covered separately in ‘Aasoucha Prakaranam’. ‘Sapindyam’ for these persons continues only for 3 generations.

49. Author of Akhandadarsa also says - ‘Paitinasi’s statement, ‘beyond three generations in mother’s line and 5 generations in father’s line’ should be explained as applicable to kshatriya girl. It has been established in Varadarajiyam that the above passage of Paitinasi applies to kshatriya girl on the strength of Kanva’s statement, ‘One can marry kshatriya girl beyond 3 generations in mother’s line and beyond 5 generations in father’s line. One can marry girl of the same varna only beyond 5 generations in mother’s line and beyond 7 generations in father’s line.’

50. In Vignanesvariyam also - The contradiction among smritis is denied by saying that Vasishtha’s statement on ‘beyond 5 and 7’ and Paitinasi’s statement on ‘beyond 3 and 5’ are meant only to prohibit generations within those limits and not to prescribe other requirements. The limits of 5 and 7 refer to same jati. Sarvabhoumiyam states that as per Sankha’s statement cited earlier, in case of different jatis, ‘sapindyam’ is only upto 3 generations.

51. The reason for people trying to marry ‘the fourth girl’ et al is only delusion, due to ignorance of what applies to girl of same jati and of the fact that the passage, ‘one can marry the fourth (generation) girl’ applies to girl of different jati. The reason may be wrong tradition; there is no other basis. Even if a statement of Rishis is found with effort and if it contradicts the established smritis of Manu and Yagnavalkya, it is to be abandoned; it is stated, ‘Smriti opposed to Manusmriti is not praiseworthy’ and ‘All munis are on one side; Yagnavalkya on the other side; hence know that the dharmasastra propounded by him alone is authority’. If there is contradiction with sastra, even ‘lokachara’ (practice followed by many) is to be abandoned.

52. Katyayana in the same vein - Like we abandon Smriti opposed to Veda, ‘lokachara’ opposed to Smriti should be abandoned.

53. Vasishtha also - What is prescribed by Sruti and Smritis is dharma. If these are not available, ‘sishtachara’ (conduct of the virtuous) alone is authority. The meaning is that ‘sishtachara’ opposed to sastra is not authority.

54. Gautama also - Dharmas followed in Desa (country), jati and family (race) are authorities if they are not opposed to sastras.

55. Hence as marriage with girls of different varna is forbidden in kaliyuga and as Manu, Yagnavalkya et al have permitted marriages only beyond 5 and 7 generations and as faults have been mentioned in respect of marriage within those limits, marriage within 5 and 7 generations is forbidden.

56. The relatives on the side of stepmother until 5 generations are also forbidden in the same manner, as ‘sapindyam’ extends there also.

57. Sumantu also - All the wives of father are mothers. Their brothers are mother’s brothers; their daughters are the daughters of mother’s brother; their sisters are mother’s sisters; their children are the children of mother’s sister. Hence one should not unite with them; if united, he would have committed mixing of varnas.

58. Sapindyam is mentioned in Smriti also - As father has sapindyam with his wife of producing a body, sapindyam extends to son et al with stepmother and her ‘sapindas’ through contact of body part of father. Hence in the statements cited earlier, the ordinary term,’ matru’ has been used (for mother); the term ‘janani’ (mother who gave birth to him) has not been used. Hence it is necessary to avoid the relatives of stepmother like those of mother.

59. (One should avoid the sister of brother’s wife and her daughter, and the sister of father’s wife and her daughter.)

60. As the term ‘pitru’ has been used (for father) and not ‘janaka’ (father who gave birth to him), the line of father other than janaka should also be avoided upto 7 generations. Gautama also - One should marry those who do not have equal Pravara. In father’s line, beyond 7 generations; in case of true father, the same way. Yagnavalkya smriti says, ‘Son born of another’s wife through niyoga by her husband’s brother, who has no son, is eligible to inherit the wealth of both the fathers and do sraadham for both; another Smriti says, ‘he is the son of two fathers - actual and nominal; the descendant of two families’.

61. About ‘datta’ (given in danam) son Smriti says: ‘The ‘datta’ son does not inherit the gotra and wealth of his original actual father. One, who underwent upanayanam and then became ‘datta’ son, has two gotras. One, who does not know his gotra, receives the gotra of the person who does upanayanam for him. If he knows his gotra, he receives two gotras like ‘datta’.’ Paitinasi also - Datta, the son who was sold (kreeta), kritrima (adopted son from same jati) and putrikaputra (daughter’s son, agreed as own son) have two gotras; they are known as ‘dvyamushyanas’. Hence it has been determined in Vignanesvariyam, Akhandadarsam, Varadarajiyam etc. that marriage is to be done only beyond 5 and 7 generations in both families.

62. But some like the author of Chandrika - Only those who are connected in ‘Ekakriya’ (single kriya) with ‘Ekoddesya’ (single purpose) are said to be ‘sapindas’. Markandeya also - ‘Three generations starting from father are recipients of ‘pinda’; three above them are recipients of ‘lepa’; yajamana is the seventh. Thus connection is only upto seven persons’.

63. Thus since daughter of mother’s brother et al are not in the ambit of ‘ekapinda’ (common pinda), they become ‘asapindas’; hence marrying them is proper. Statements like ‘Beyond 5 generations in mother’s line; girl of same gotra as mother not allowed’ apply to ‘putrikakarana’ (making daughter’s son as own son) and progeny of woman accepted in marriages like Aasura. This is because mother has the same gotra as father and determination of same gotra based on previous gotra of mother is not correct. Smritis say that mother has the same gotra as father.

64. Lokakshi says that Putrikaputra has the same gotra as mother - Prajapati says, ‘Putrikaputra has to perform danam of pinda and water to mother with the gotra of mother’s father’.

65. Markandeya on marriage like Aasura - ‘Uttarakriyas (post - death ceremonies) to woman who has been married as per Brahma system etc. have to be done with the gotra of her husband. Uttarakriyas to woman who has been married as per Aasura system etc. have to be done with the gotra of her father.’ Hence know that as ceremonial danam with water in Putrikakaranam and marriages like Aasura is not there and as father’s sapindyam and gotra are not cancelled and as sapindyam etc. continue for mother with her father, the matters relating to ‘Asapindasayamatu:’ etc. relate to Putrikaputra. We shall now answer the question: As son is sapinda with mother and as sapinda of mother is sapinda of son also, why the term ‘Matu:’? If at any time mother’s father and mother abandon Putrikaputra, their sapindyam will then get cancelled and marriage with girl who is sapinda of mother becomes possible. This is not allowed; hence involvement of father. For the son of woman whose sapindyam with her mother and father stands cancelled owing to Braahma etc. type marriage, marriage with daughter of mother’s brother and others within 5 and 7 limits is acceptable. It is settled that the statements forbidding marriage with the daughter of mother’s brother et al refer to the sons of women taken in marriages like Aasura etc. and to Putrikaputra. The passages supporting marriage with the daughter of mother’s brother et al refer to the sons of women taken in marriages like Braahma etc.

86. Marriage with Daughter of Mother’s Brother

1. Narada - In some provinces, they abridge sapindyam and marry the 3rd in mother’s generation and 5th in father’s generation. The fourth can marry the fourth or fifth generation girl; not the 6th generation girl.

2. In Shattrimsanmatham - The view of Paarasara, Angiras and Yama is that one can marry a girl, 3rd in mother’s or father’s line.

3. In Chaturvimsatimatham - The view of Paarasara, Angiras and Yama is that one can marry a girl, 3rd and 4th in mother’s or father’s line.

4. In Smritisaram - In some provinces some people abridge sapindyam and marry daughter of mother’s brother and father’s sister.The 4th can marry 5th generation girl; the 6th can marry 5th; the 5th can marry 4th and not 5th. The prohibition of 5th in marrying 5th girl refers to father’s line and not mother’s.

5. In Smritiratnam - Eating along with one who has not undergone upanayanam and marrying daughter of mother’s brother et al are said to be faultless in Southern areas. Crossing the seas, eating meat, living on use of weapons and drinking liquor are not prohibited for those in Northern areas.

6. Brihaspati - Dvijas in Southern areas marry daughter of mother’s brother. In Central areas, carpenters and masons eat cow’s meat. All people eat fish. Women are not chaste. In Northern areas, women drink liquor. They touch women in menses. The husband’s brother marries woman, who has lost her husband, if she has no son. Thus acharas and dharmas relating to area, jati and family (race) have been set by our ancestors. They should be safeguarded in the same way. If not, people will face disturbance. Nowadays contrary acharas are noticed in Southern areas. Marriage with daughter of mother’s brother is criticised because of relationship with mother. Uniting with brother’s wife, who has lost her husband, is also criticised heavily. This achara is seen in other areas. Contrary acharas of this type should not be dispensed with. In Persia, marrying a girl, who is sisterly relative, is seen. Some say that one who has eaten in ‘ekoddishta sraadham’ should not be nominated for another sraadham again. While collecting back foodgrains loaned in spring season, some take twice the quantity in autumn. In case the amount of money given in loan grows to twice, some enjoy the land kept in mortgage with them without paying compensation. Some say this is not allowed. As Dharma relating to the province, jati etc. also is authority if it is not opposed to sastra, the king should consult sastras and guide all activities.

7. Hence in marriages like Braahma etc., as mother has lost her sapindyam with her gotra, daughter of mother’s brother can be married as she is asapinda. The same applies to the daughter of father’s sister. But the reason why marrying the similarly - placed sister of mother is not allowed is that it is opposed to common practice, though it is not opposed to sastra. Even if it is as per dharma, what is opposed to common practice should not be done. Manu on that - Even if it is as per dharma, what is opposed to common practice should not be done, as it will not bestow good state in future.

8. Varahamihira also - First one should consider achara prevalent in the area. What is right in a particular province should only be done in that province. Scholars prohibit what is opposed to common practice. Hence a wise man should follow the path commonly followed in that area.

9. In the midst of Andhraites among the residents of Southern provinces, the best among those who have learnt three Vedas and the virtuous who follow the stipulations of Vedas marry the daughter of mother’s brother et al. Among Dravidas (Tamilians) also, the virtuous like them marry ‘the fourth’ et al. They do not marry the sister of mother, her daughter et al. Many says that the conduct of the virtuous is also authority - The conduct of the virtuous, Smriti and Veda are the three authorities for Dharma. The practice to be adopted should be determined based on achara of dvijas who are virtuous and followers of Dharma and not opposed to the province, family (race) and jati practices.

10. Aapasthambha - Whichever acharas have come down traditionally from ancestors of a particular group, those acharas do not spoil that group; but not others.

11. Devala - Bhrigu’s view is that whichever acharas have been practised as right in a particular province, those acharas can be pracised in that province alone. Whoever are Devas, or brahmanas; whichever is water, or clay; whichever is ‘soucham’ (purity measure), or dharmachara in a particular province; they should not be disregarded in that province. It is Dharma in that province. Whatever is laid down as dharma in a particular province, city or village or the place of residence of knowers of three Vedas, that should not be changed.

12. Bodhayana - In Southern provinces (south of Narmada river and north of Kanyatirtham), contrary achara is of 5 types. In the same way in the Northern provinces (south of Himalayas and north of Vindhyas) also. We shall first talk about the Southern provinces. Eating with one who has not undergone upanayanam, eating with woman, eating old cooked rice, uniting with daughter of mother’s brother and uniting with daughter of father’s sister are the five contrary acharas. We shall now talk about the Northern provinces. Selling woollens, drinking liquor, selling horse etc., living on use of weapons and crossing the seas are the 5 contrary acharas. If one adopts the achara of Southern provinces in the North or the achara of Northern provinces in the South, he will get blemish. Those acharas have authority in the respective provinces. Hence adoption and abandonment should be as per local practices.

13. Gautama says that this is false. Bodhayana says next, ‘As there is direct opposition to Smriti’; this is not to cancel what is stated earlier; but because of Gautama’s statement. It has been explained in Chandrika that marrying the girl who is mother’s sapinda is not acceptable to Gautama, as it is opposed to the Smritis of the virtuous.

14. Aapasthambha’s statement, ‘In actions done for one’s own pleasure, there is no sastra. One who acts that way will go to naraka’ amounts to prohibition of marriage with daughter of mother’s brother, who is sapinda to mother. Vasishtha’s statement, ‘If dharmas of provinces and family (race) are not opposed to Vedas, they are authorities’ favours this stand, as there is no contradiction with Veda. Favourable Sruti is also there, i.e. ‘O Indra! Come to this yagna of ours by the best routes. Come and accept the Havis offered by us. That is why those who are performing this yaga have offered to you homa of the fat cooked in ghee etc. Here two examples - This fat is ssuitable for you just as the daughter of mother’s brother or father’s sister is suitable for marriage for a man. Hence marriage with daughter of mother’s brother et al is upheld by Devanabhattopadhyaya, the author of Smritichandrika saying that this marriage is right based on Sruti, Smriti and achara; also by other wise persons in line with the achara of their provinces.