Smriti Mukta Phalam

28. Persons Suitable for Danam

1. Manu - ‘Brahmana even from birth becomes great. He is capable of protecting the dharmas of all beings. All wealth on earth belongs as if to brahmana. As he has the glory of being born from the face of Brahma, he is eligible to accept all.’

2. In Smritisaram - ‘Brahmanas who are knowers of Vedas and sastras are the lords of all. Those who practise are greater than those who know; those who have Atmagnana (self knowledge) are even greater.’

3. In Smrityarnavam - ‘Those who have studied are greater than those who have not; those who have not forgotten what they have studied are even greater; those who know the meaning are even greater; those who practise are still greater.’

4. Yama - ‘That brahmana is a suitable recipient of Danam, who is a scholar, follower of dharma, possessor of peace, self - control, patience, truth, gratitude and Vedic study, protector of cows,giver of Danam and performer of yaga. He is suitable who has done Vedic study, born in good clan, man of peace, Agnihotri, fearful of sin, highly knowledgeable, patient with women, protector of followers of dharma and man of good conduct.

5. Yagnavalkya - ‘Suitability for Danam does not come only from tapas or from vidya, but from practice; brahmana who practises is alone suitable.

6. Saatatapa - ‘Tapas of ignorant man is like horses without charioteer; vidya of undisciplined man is like charioteer without horses. Just as food and honey together become good for health, tapas and vidya together are good for man.

7. Vasishtha - ‘One who is full of Vedas is a petty candidate; one who is full of tapas is also a petty candidate. One whose stomach did not have food from sudra is the best candidate for danam.

8. In Brahmakaivarta - ‘One who abandons those whom he worshipped, respected and paid obeisance and shows devotion to others is a ‘fallen’ man.

9. Devala - ‘Eight types of brahmanas are mentioned in Vedas - Matra, brahmana, srotriya, anoochana, bhruna, rishikalpa, rishi, muni; out of them, the latter is greater than the former in vidya and conduct.

10. He describes their characteristics - One who is born as a brahmana, but is without upanayanam and observanace is ‘matra’. One who has studied a little of Veda, possessor of conduct, peace, truth and compassion and is firm is ‘brahmana’. One, who has studied at least one branch of Veda with kalpasutra or six Vedangas, knows dharma and practises the six karmas like yajanam is ‘srotriya’. Brahmana by birth, ‘dvija’ by samskaras (purificatory rituals) and ‘vipra’ by vidya, Srotriya is by all the three. One who knows the truth of Vedas and Vedangas, pure - minded, sinless and with qualities of a srotriya is ‘anoochana’. One who observes vratas (ritual vows) and has good qualities, follows the discipline of yagas and Vedic study, eats the food offered to Devas, Pitrus and the virtuous and is conqueror of sense organs is ‘bhruna’. One who has all Vedic and worldly knowledge, lives in asram and is conqueror of sense organs is ‘rishikalpa’. One, who is celebate, austere, follows discipline in food etc., has power in blessing as well as curse and wedded to truth is ‘rishi’. One who has no attachment to objects, knows all truths, free from desire and anger, established in meditation, actionless, conqueror of sense organs and views clay and gold equally is ‘muni’.

11. Yama - Virtue can be examined by living together; purity by conduct; knowledge by talk; the candidate for danam should be examined by all these three.

12. Bodhayana - ‘One who has studied meagre parts of Vedas is ‘brahmana’. One who has studied one branch completely is ‘srotriya’. One who has also studied Vedangas is ‘anoochana’. One who has also studied kalpasutra is ‘rishi’. One who has studied explanations of sutras is ‘bhruna’.

13. Daksha - ‘Danam given to abrahmana, brahmana, one who has studied Veda and Vedaparaga confers the fruit respectively, equal, two times, 1000 times and limitless. Sin resulting from trouble also should be understood in the same manner.

14. Gautama - ‘Danam given to abrahmana, brahmana, one who has studied Veda and Vedaparaga confers the fruit respectively, equal, two times, 1000 times and limitless.’

15. Haradatta says that Vedaparaga is one who has learnt Vedas along with Angas, Kalpasutras and Rahasyas.

16. About Abrahmanas in another Smriti - ‘Abrahmanas are of six types - employee of the king, one who buys and sells, one who performs yagas for many, one who performs yaga for the unworthy, servant of the village or city and one who does not worship Sandhya in the morning before dawn and in the evening before sunset, so says Saatatapa.

17. Samvartha - ‘One who knows the creation, destruction, going and coming of beings and vidya and avidya is called ‘Vedaparaga’.

18. Brihaspati - ‘Danam to srotriya will confer 1000 times benefit, to Acharya twice that, to Atmagnani 100000 times that and to Agnihotri unlimited benefit.

19. Vyasa - ‘The best danam must be given to the Guru and danam to others as per their suitability. Guru is one who teaches the disciple in Samskrit or local language and through means suited to time and place. If Guru is not there, danam should be given to his son, wife, daughter, son’s son, his son, son of daughter or member of family; if order is changed it will lead to lower states for the recipient.

20. Vyasa - ‘Danam to mother, father, brother, sister, daughter, wife, son or brother’s son will pave the way for swarga. Danam given to father will confer benefit 100 times, to mother 1000 times, to daughter unlimited, to direct sister imperishable, to sister, nephew, uncle, aunt, and poor relatives one crore times.

21. Vishnu - ‘The family priest (Purohita) is the most suitable candidate for danam. Some say that sister, daughter, son and son - in - law are also proper candidates, though they may lack qualities.

22. Daksha - ‘Danam given to mother, father, guru, friend, humble person, helpful person, poor man, orphan and virtuous man confers undecaying benefit. During time of distress in country, danam given to those who seek money, having lost money, wife etc. will give great benefit. Danam should be given to matters of dharma like removal of danger, settling loan, for family and for good cause. This is rule. If Agnihotri and man of penance die without repaying loan, their punya will all go to the giver of loan. There is no limit to the punya accruing to one, who performs upanayanam, marriage etc. and settles in life, person whose parents are not alive. The punya acquired by settling a brahmana will not be acquired even by doing Agnihotram and Asvamedhayaga. Danam given with compassion to poor man, blind, sufferer, orphan, boy, old man and troubled man will give limitless fruit.’

23. Vyasa - ‘One who transgresses in food and danam, a brahmana who is near at hand and doing Vedic study, will have his sin burn seven generations of his family. One who abandons those whom he worshipped, respected and paid obeisance and shows devotion to others reaches lowly state.

24. Manu –‘Danam given for the next world while troubling son and wife, who must be protected, will harm the giver while being alive and after death. One can think of a suitable person who is far away as Vishnu, drop water on earth and give the material later.

25. In Hemadri - ‘There are two damages to money rightfully earned - giving to unsuitable person and not giving to suitable person.

26. Aapasthambha - ‘One should earn money in ways not opposed to dharma, give to suitable person and not give to unsuitable person. Bharatam says that those who examine brahmanas without livelihood, who seek food, will go to naraka.

27. Saatatapa - ‘One who transgresses a brahmana who is near at hand and doing Vedic study, will be born a donkey 100 times. If the one near at hand is idiot, danam may be given to one of good quality who is far away; there is no blemish of transgression of brahmana. One does not leave out blazing Agni and perform homam in ash.

28. Vyasa - ‘If one who is far away is better in conduct, vidya etc., danam should be given to him with effort. There is no fault in transgressing an idiot who is near at hand.’ In danam of food, as it is stated, ‘Food should be given to all’, it is certainly faulty to transgress one who is near at hand and who is not a ‘fallen’ man. In sraadhas etc., food should be given only to pure persons, who know mantras. One smriti says, ’For food, a hungry man is the most suitable’.

29. In Aanusasanikam - ‘Always water should be given to people of all castes; O best among brahmanas! as this is difficult to get in my world’ - this is Yama’s statement.

30. Vyasa - ‘Danam given to sudra will give benefit of one; to vysya, two times; to kshatriya, three times; to brahmana, six times; to Atmagnani, one lakh times; to Agnihotri, unlimited. Danam given to karmayogis will last one birth; to men of penance, 100 births; to men of japayagna, 1000 births; to Sivayogis, till Pralaya. Dana to cows will give benefit of one; to people of sankara (mixed) jati, two times; to sudra, four times; to vysya, eight times; to kshatriya and inferior brahmana, 16 times; to man of Vedic study, 32 times; to man of penance, 100 times and, to brahmana with mastery of Veda, limitless.

31. The danam to sudras etc. is danam other than danam of cow etc. with mantra. It is stated, ‘If danam with mantra is given to man who has no mantra, the hand of the giver and the tongue of the recipient are cut’.

29. Determination of persons Unsuitable for Danam

1. Saatatapa - ‘Danam given to ‘devalaka’ will be destroyed. Danam given to ‘vardhushaka’ is useless. Danam given to a trader is useless in both this and the next worlds. One who does Devapooja for three years for money is ‘Devalaka’. He is unfit for rituals connected with Devas and Pitrus.’

2. In Smritisangraham - ‘A brahmana who does Devapooja for others with desire for money is equal to chandala, even if he has studied all the four Vedas. Devalakas are of three types - Karma devalaka, Kalpa devalaka and Sudha Devalaka. Karma devalaka is one who does Devapooja for money and for a fixed period. He is unfit for all karmas. Kalpa devalaka is one who does Devapooja as per rules of Pancharatra without diksha, even if he has studied all the four Vedas. Sudha devalaka is one who worships ghost, Kali as per rules of Agama. He is unfit for all karmas. If one does Pooja as per rules laid down by Rishis, there is no devalakahood attached; hence Pooja should be done somehow as per Vaidic rules.

3. Yama - ‘Vardhushika is one who gets money on proper interest, but lends at high interest and who lives only on interest. He is despised by knowers of Veda. One who criticises others, but praises his own qualities is also Vardhushika.

4. Vridhamanu - ‘Nothing should be given to one who will use the danam material for bad purposes, even if he is otherwise suitable. One, who accumulates by getting danam in many places without using for dharma, is thief and hence he should not be given respect.

5. In Vishnu Dharmottaram - ‘Danam given in place of others is waste, so it is stated. Danam given to a man ‘fallen’ from good state, danam given out of money wrongfully earned, danam given to Abrahmana, ‘fallen’ man, thief, hater of guru, ungrateful man, village priest, seller of Veda, one who accommodates in his house adulterous person, one who is conquered by women, one who catches snakes, inferior brahmana, husband of ‘vrushali’ and cook - these 16 danas are wasted danas.’

6. Daksha on husband of vrushali - ‘A girl who attains puberty before marriage in father’s home is ‘vrushali’. Her husband is ‘vrushalipati’.

7. Devala - ‘Vrushali’ is barren woman or one who has lost children born to her or girl who attained puberty before marriage.

8. Vyasa - ‘Even water should not be given by knower of dharma to unbeliever, disputant, heretics of all types and one who does not know Veda.

9. Parasara - ‘One who doubts even dharmas laid down in sastras with deceitful logic is called ‘haituka’; he is worse than a heretic.

10. Prajapati - ‘One who has abandoned ‘swadharma’ is called ‘pashandi’; his associate is equal to him; both are sinners. Those who consider Purushottama (Vishnu) as equal to others are ‘pashandis’; they will go to naraka and they are the worst among men.

11. Narada - Danam given to eunuch, one without son, one of deceitful nature and astrologer is useless.

12. Vyasa - ‘One should always nourish the lame, blind, deaf, dumb and sufferer from disease; but no danam is to be given to them. The giver of danam to bad persons will lose dharma, become sinner and go to naraka. If one gives money to sanyasis, tambulam to brahmachari and fearlessness to thief, both will go to hell. Without proper discrimination, if danam is given to unsuitable persons and not given to suitable persons, the giver will be relieved of both money and dharma.

13. Yama - ‘Danam should not be given to those, who do not observe vratas (vows) and who have not studied Veda, but who are brahmanas only by caste. A stone cannot make another stone cross the river. Danam should not be given to one who has abandoned Agnihotra, who does things not liked by the guru and who always commits sin. Brahmanas who teach Veda to sudras are unfit for danam. Brahmana becomes ‘fallen’ if he teaches sudra; no doubt.

14. Parasara on the characteristics of ‘vrushala’ - ‘Those who do not perform Agnikarmas and Sandhyavandanam and who have not studied Veda are ‘vrushalas’. Cow, chariot, gold and land meant for danam shed tears on seeing the hand of brahmana without study of Veda. Danam given to the worst brahmana is waste like a city without people, well without water and homam offered in ash.

15. Vyasa tells about blemish to one who gives to unsuitable person - ‘Know him to be the worst of men, who is praised by the worst brahmanas, prostitutes, sensualists, minstrels, artisans, astrologers, thieves, goondas, golakas, seekers, sellers of flesh, those who live on bribes, ‘fallen’, husbands of prostitutes and jesters.

30. Determination of Acceptance of Danam (Ceremonial Gift)

1. Manu - ‘A brahmana who cannot survive on his normal livelihood can accept ‘silam and ‘uncham’ from somewhere. ‘Silam’ is better than acceptance of danam; ‘uncham’ is even better. ‘Silam’ is gathering ears of grains lying scattered in fields; gathering of grains is ‘uncham’. There are seven ways of earning without violation of dharma: 1. ‘Dayam’ - that which is got in the family (share). 2. treasure etc. 3. Selling. 4. Success. 5. Increase through interest. 6. Agriculture, trade etc. 7. Acceptance of good danam. Even if one is efficient in acceptance of danam, he should not resort to it frequently. By acceptance of danam, the lustre of brahmana will diminish. One, who knows the rules of acceptance and has vidya, is ‘efficient’ in acceptance. Frequent acceptance is ‘Prasangam’.

2. Manu again - ‘Teaching of Veda, performance of yagas for others and condemnable acceptance of danam do not cause blemish to brahmanas in emergencies. Because they are equal to Agni and Surya.

3. Yagnavalkya says that non - acceptance of danam is better than acceptance of good danam - One who is eligible for accepting danam, but does not accept, reaches all holy realms fit for those who give danam.

4. Vyasa - ‘Brahmana can accept money from good dvijas or dvijas who are only namesake; but never from sudras. Brahmana should not be desirous of danam; he can accept only for living. If he accepts more than that, he will be a ‘fallen’ brahmana. One who desires more than hot food with ghee, cloth not torn and not being slave to others is a ‘fallen’ man.

5. Narada - ‘As all dharmas are obtained through money, money should be earned. There are three avenues in respect of money earned - growing, protecting and enjoying. The money is of three types - suklam, chapalam and krishnam. Money obtained through sastra, valour, tapas, girl, one for whom he performs yaga, disciple and his own clan is called ‘suklam’; as its source is pure. Interest, agriculture, trade, brokerage, sculpture, following and return help - money from these seven sources is ‘chapalam’. Servant, gambling, pleading, troubling, image, cruelty, deceit – money from these sourcs is ‘krishnam’. Benefit in this and next worlds will be in accordance with the kind of money used in observance of karma.

6. In Saptarishi samvada - ‘Earning wealth for dharma is praised. It is better to earn tapas. Depending on brahmana not accepting bad danam, his lustre increases. Brahma once weighed poverty and kingship. The poverty of the conqueror of sense organs weighed more than kingship. The fool who gets danam from king and feels happy instead of regretting it will reach 21 narakas.

7. In another smriti - Sin as well as acceptance of danam should not be done in holy place. The sin as well as acceptance of danam done in holy place cannot be erased.

8. Manu - Danam should not be accepted from king who is not kshatriya, seller of flesh, seller of oil, seller of liquor, and pimp.

9. Manu gives the relative status of these - The trader is 10 times more sinful than seller of flesh, seller of liquor 10 times the seller of oil, the pimp 10 times the seller of liquor and king 10 times the pimp.

10. Manu tells about king - One who accepts danam from a miserly king, acting in transgression of sastra goes to 21 narakas serially. Hence brahmanas who are knowers of Veda, interested in good in the next world, do not accept danam from king.

11. Yagnavalkya - In the mateer of acceptance of danam, out of seller of flesh, seller of oil, seller of liquor, prostitute and king, the latter is 10 times more sinful than the former in that order.

12. Yagnavalkya again - Even in hunger, one should not accept danam from king, disciple, one for whom he performs yaga, vain man, disputant, heretic and ‘bhagavritti’ (living on prostitute’s income).

13. Katyayana - Money obtained through discourse and knowledge for the sake of competition, from disciple, being ritwik, by resolution of doubts, by teaching sastras, argument and ‘praadhyayana’ is fit for dharma. One can live on money obtained, but not sought, ‘silam’, ‘uncham’, material given by disciple and money got from family and by accepting danam from pure persons in observance of karma. One can live by seeking with humility and begging a little from house to house. One should not take from sellers of curd and milk, salt, cow and horse; from money - lender; one who eats food in sraadha always; from performers of unworthy yaga, adulterers, traders, sudra and one who has abandoned Agni.

14. Manu - If nothing is available after fast for six times, one can get from sudra material enough for a day.

15. Manu again - Even by doing many despicable deeds one should protect old parents, chaste wife and young son.

16. Haaritha - One should take only from a person who knows how to grow dharma at home.

17. Angiras - One can take from sudra foodgrains gathered in the field or store.

18. Vyasa - For the sake of family one can take from good sudra without seeking. One should never seek for yaga or for himself. Brahmana should shrink his way of living and not desire for greater wealth. If he desires he will lose brahmanya.

19. In Chaturvimsatimatam - A hungry brahmana can take danam from brahmana, kahatriya, vaisya or sudra in that order of preference. Even if he is recluse, he can take uncooked flesh, honey, ghee, foodgrains, milk, medicine, jaggery and juices from even sudra.

20. Yagnavalkya - One can take from all for worship of Devas and guests, for guru, for wife and children and for his own livelihood. Yagnavalkya criticises taking from an evil king in time of no emergency - One should not take from a miserly king, who transgresses sastras.

21. In Skandam - One who has grown due to gift from king will be born as a brahmarakshasa in an arid place; he will not get any other birth again.

22. In Brahmandapurana - One does not swerve from dharma by taking for dharma from person for whom he performs yaga or from his disciple even in ordinary times.

23. Manu on adversity - In adversity brahmana can accept from all with no blemish being attached. It is against logic of sastra that pure article will attract blemish. Brahmana whose life is in danger will not attract sin, if he eats food from anyone, like space does not from mud. Rishi Ajigarta, unable to bear hunger, tried to kill his son in a yagna; still he did not attract sin. Vamadeva, who knew right and wrong, in pangs of hunger, tried to eat the flesh of dog to save his life; he did not attract sin. Rishi Bharadvaja, while in a forest with his children, suffering from hunger, accepted many cows from Vrutu, a carpenter. Rishi Visvamitra, who knew right and wrong, in pangs of hunger, tried to eat the flesh of rear part of dog from the hands of a chandala. They also did not attract sin.

24. Manu lists materials that can be accepted even in no emergency - Firewood, water, fruit, roots, rice, honey, assurance of fearlessness – these can be accepted from anybody. Brahma agrees that food can be accepted even from a sinner, if it was not announced earlier and if it is brought and kept in front by the giver. In the house of one who disrespects that food, Pitrus do not take food for fifteen years; Agni also does not accept Havis (oblation). Manu permits that certain materials obtained without seeking can be accepted - bed, kusa (darbha), house, sandalpaste, water, flower, gem, curd, parched rice, fish, milk, flesh and vegetable.

25. Aapasthambha - Honey, Aamam (uncooked rice etc.), animal flesh, land, basics, fearlessness, way of cow, house, grass etc. for cow - these can be accepted even from a ‘ugra’. ‘Ugra’ is son born of vaisya father and sudra mother or dvija full of sins.

26. Aapasthambha again - If the specified means of livelihood is not available, one can live through other means; too much exertion should not be made; once the specified means is available, the other prohibited means should be dropped.

27. Gautama - Brahmana can eat in the house of dvijas who are very good in observing their dharma of varna and asrama; he can also accept danam from them. Firewood, water, grass, roots, fruit, honey, fearlessness, article which came without seeking, bed, seat, house, vehicle, milk, curd, parched rice, fish, foodgrain, garland, way, vegetable - these can be accepted even from ordinary dvijas. For sraadham, ritual for Devas and protection of gurus like father and dependents like wife, one can accept all things from all dvijas. If there is no livelihood without acceptance of danam from sudra, one can receive from sudra.

28. Aasvalayana - Never abandoning one’s karmas, one should look after parents and chaste wife and children well with any means of livelihood. For one who has abandoned parents out of ignorance, for livelihood, desire for dharma or deceit, there is no higher world. For one who has abandoned old parents with none to look after, chaste wife and children out of delusion, though capable, there is no higher world. For the sake of gurus, guests and wife and children, one can accept even food from sudra. He should not eat it himself. My view is that one can take from good sudras.

29. Yagnavalkya - One can accept from even person of evil livelihood certain things which are offered to him without his seeking. But one should not accept from prostitute, eunuch, ‘fallen’ person and enemy.

30. Haaritha - Even if doctor, hunter, prostitute, eunuch, woman recently delivered and gambler offer something by force, it should not be accepted.

31. Manu - For looking after gurus like parents and wife and children and performing Poojas of Devas and guests, one can accept from everybody. One should not seek to satisfy himself with that money. After the death of gurus or if they live separately even while alive, one should accept from only good people for his own living.

32. In Hemadri - Undesirable acceptance is of five types - place, time, material, caste and karma. Place is like Kurukshetra etc. Time is eclipse etc. Material is skin of black deer etc. Caste is sudra etc. Karma is despicable occupation.

33. Further - Female sheep (ewe), buffalo, ghee, cow with two faces, deerskin, elephant, Kalapurusha, mountain of til, goat, horse and first Masikam - these are called bad danams. One should not look at the faces of those who accept these danams; if one sees, he should close his eyes immediately. One who accepts danam of skin of black deer, buffalo, two - faced goat, and maidservant will not get male birth again. One who receives food for preta (jiva of person who is just dead), bed of preta, cloth for preta, utkranti (danam on death) and kalapurusha will not get male birth again. Brahmana can overcome the sin of stealing wealth many times; he cannot overcome the sin of receiving danam from a person about to lose life. One who has accepted decorations and cloth of dead person and ‘tiladhenu’ will not return from naraka. If the giver sees the recipient of danam of kalapurusha, buffalo, ghee, and ‘ekoddishtam’ within 6 months, his punya will be destroyed.

34. Manu - Wool, cloth, cotton, cotton cloth, gold, palanquin, cow, land, foodgrain, women, maidservant, male servant, house, vehicle, liquids like milk etc., cows - the acceptor of these danams will be ‘fallen’, even if he were yati (sanyasi); no doubt.

35. Jabali - The fool, who accepts money of a sanyasi knowingly, will take his 21 generations to naraka.

36. Yagnavalkya - Danam should not be accepted from one who does not have vidya and tapas; the recipient will take the giver as well as himself to lower state.

37. Manu - A wise man, even if suffering from hunger, should not accept without knowing the rules for acceptance of different materials. He should chant the ‘uthanastva’ mantra while accepting danam of any material. This is the rule for accepting danam.

38. Manu says that one, who is not aware of rules of acceptance, should never accept gold etc. - Gold, land, horse, cow, food, cloth, til, ghee - if these are accepted by one, who does not know the rules, he becomes like wood becoming ash. Gold and food will burn lifespan, land and cow burn the body, horse burns eye, cloth burns skin, ghee burns lustre and til burns children. Burning means causing disease. If brahmana without tapas and Vedic study accepts danam, he will drown in naraka along with the giver, like one who uses a stone raft would sink in water along with the raft. Hence the ignorant man should be afraid of acceptance of any danam. Even with accepting minor things, he will suffer in naraka like bull in slush. Manu says that there is no blemish of theft in accepting, even without asking, flower, fruit, roots, firewood for Agni and grass for cows.

39. In Smrityarthasaram - Wayfarers may take a handful of following from others’ fields without hindrance - chana, paddy, wheat, barley, moong and urid dals.

40. Aapasthambha - There is no blemish of theft in taking grains like chana, moong and urid and grass, hay etc. for the bull drawing the cart. The owner should also not stop the one who takes; but there will be blemish if taken in large quantity. Haaritha’s view is that one should always accept any materials only with permission of owner.

41. Gautama - Grass for cow, fitewood for homam, flower and fruit for devapooja from trees not fenced - these can be taken from others’ places as they were his own.

42. Manu - If brahmana, walking and suffering from hunger, takes two sugarcanes and two roots from others’ places, he is not to be punished. Smriti says that the hand of one who takes without owner’s permission, grass, firewood, roots and fruit, should be cut.

43. Samvartha and Daksha - Brahmana, who always performs homam and japa and who shuns food from others, does not attract sin, even if he takes the earth with all gems.

44. Vyasa - By accepting danam, brahmana becomes like milked cow (lustre diminishes). Just as cow becomes well nourished with good grass again, brahmana becomes well nourished again with homams and japas.

45. Manu - Sin accruing from performing yaga for others and teaching of Veda will be erased by japas and homamas. Sin accruing from accetance of danam will go away by giving danam and observing tapas.

46. In Vishnudharmottaram - One can accept saving of his life from chandala (outcaste) and pulkasa (mixed tribe). The survivor will get everything; he can perform karmas. Body is the basis of dharma; it should be protected somehow.

31. Other means of livelihood

1. Manu - Brahmana can live on ‘rutam’, ‘amrutam’, ‘mrutam’, ‘pramrutam’ or ‘satyanrutam’; he should never live on ‘svavritti’. ‘Uncham’ and ‘silam’ are both called ‘rutam’. That which is obtained without seeking is called ‘amrutam’. That which is obtained by seeking is called ‘mrutam’. Ploughing and sowing crops is called ‘pramrutam’. Trading is ‘satyamrutam’. Serving others is ‘svavritti’; as this is life of dog, one should not live on it. Out of the above, if the former is not available, the next one should be used in that order. Listing means like this, Manu describes the aims - One can live with foodgrains stored to last for three years, one year, three days or for that day only. Out of these four, the latter is better than the former; he conquers swarga with dharma. After listing the four aims, Manu also classifies the means into four - one does six karmas (performing yagas for others, teaching Veda, acceptance of danam, agriculture, trade, money - lending); the next does three karmas (performing yagas for others, teaching Veda, acceptance of danam); the next does two karmas (performing yagas for others, teaching Veda); the next does only one karma (teaching Veda).

2. Even while adopting the specified means of livelihood, brahmana should live in ordinary times without troubling other beings. Manu also says that if not possible, one should live with minimum trouble to others. One should gather enough money only for doing essential acts without torturing the body by doing good and specified actions. For livelihood, one should not adopt worldly means. One should resort to brahmana means of livelihood, pure and free from falsehood and vanity. The seeker of happiness should be humble and specially contented. For happiness, contentment is the root; lack of contentment is the root of grief.

3. Yagnavalkya - One who lives on foodgrains gathered through ‘silam’ and ‘uncham’ is classified into four types - having foodgrains to last for 3 years, 1 year, 3 days and that day only. Out of them, the former is greater than the next in that order. This description refers to ‘yayavara’ only and not all brahmanas. If not, there will be contradiction with passages like ‘one who has foodgrains to last for more than 3 years can do soomapanam’.

4. Devala says that there are two types of gruhasthas - yayavara and salina. ‘Yayavara’ is one who has abandoned performance of yagas for others, teaching of Vedas, acceptance of danam and accumulation of money. ‘Salina’ is one who does all the six permitted karmas, has servant, cattle, village, house, money and foodgrains and lives in a worldly manner.

5. Vyasa - Gruhastha is of two types - sadhaka and asadhaka. For sadhaka, the main livelihood is performance of yagas for others, teaching of Vedas and acceptance of danam. In adversity he will do money - lending, agriculture and trade. For asadhaka, silam and uncham are the main means of livelihood. In adversity he will do amrutam and mrutam. That which came on its own without seeking is amrutam. That which came on seeking is mrutam.

6. Sandilya - It is not wrong to accept things which come on their own without seeking. Devas call it amrutam; hence that should not be left.

32. Livelihood in Adversity

1. Manu - If a brahmana cannot live through means prescribed for him, he can live on kshatriya means. That is the next in dharma for him. If he cannot live on both, he must adopt vysya means like agriculture and cattle welfare.

2. Vyasa - Kshatriya means is better; brahmana should not do agriculture on his own, they say. Hence in adversity he has to live on kshatriya means. If he does not get it he can adopt agriculture, the vysya means.

3. Yagnavalkya - In adversity brahmana can live on kshatriya or vaisya means. After crossing adversity he should become pure by doing prayaschitta and be in his prescribed path.

4. Gautama - If his own means of livelihood is not available, brahmana can adopt kshatriya means or vysya means.

5. Manu - For kshatriya, carrying weapons including divine missiles is means of livelihood. For vysya, trade, cattle welfare and agriculture are means. Danam, study of Vedas and yaga are swadharmas.

6. Devala - For kshatriya the means of livelihood are yaga, study of Vedas, danam, divine weapons, citizens’ welfare, fearlessness, principle of punishment and archery. For kshatriya, valour, lustre, courage, force, not running away in war, danam and thought of God are natural. Study of Vedas etc., money - lending, cattle welfare, agriculture and trade are karmas for vysya. The passages of Manu and others like, ‘One’s own dharma followed less than others’ dharma followed properly is better.’; ‘One who lives on others’ professions becomes exiled from his caste immediately.’ refer to availability of one’s own means of livelihood at least in a limited manner in adverse condition. If his own means is not available at all, in adversity, he can adopt the means of kshatriya and vaisya. If that is also mixed with violence, it should be abandoned in Kaliyuga. There is prohibition in the words, ‘The emergency occupation of killing brahmanas, who stand for killing him, in war of dharma and ‘asvasthanika’ (not keeping provision for the next day) practice are prohibited in Kaliyuga’. Aasvalayana has said, ‘In Kaliyuga, the means of vysya is better than that of kshatriya’.

7. Aapasthambha - For brahmana trade is not prescribed. In distress he can do trade. He may trade in permitted articles and avoid prohibited articles. Trade means buying and selling. This refers to all means of livelihood of vysya.

8. Aapasthambha lists articles not to be traded - humans like servant, liquids like milk, jaggery, salt, dyeing materials, perfume like sandalpaste, food, skin, barren cow, lac etc., water, sprouting pulses, liquor, tippili, pepper, foodgrain, flesh, weapon and fruit of punya. Out of foodgrains, til (gingelly) and rice should specially not be sold; they should not be exchanged also. Food can be exchanged with food; humans with humans; liquids with liquids; perfumes with perfumes; vidya with vidya. One should trade in permitted articles, which were brought by him. Munja (grass), balbaja (grass), roots, fruit, grass and wood – these can be traded without change of form. In adversity one should not trouble himself too much. One may live at least on trading and exchanging prohibited articles. After adverse situation is over, one should leave the emergency means of livelihood, if the normal means is available.

9. Manu - One should not sell liquid materials like jaggery and milk, food, til, stone, salt, cow and man. Also are prohibited all cloths, dyed and made of yarn; jute, silk and wool, even undyed; fruit, root and medicine. Water, weapon, poison, flesh, soma creeper, all perfumes, milk, honey, curd, ghee, oil, beeswax, jaggery, kusa grass, all kinds of wild cows, lion etc., birds, liquor, lac, all animals with one hoof, brass, lead, iron, silver, skin, bone, fat, nerve, gorochana - these are also prohibited for sale.

10. In Manu’s words, ‘Agriculturist may grow and produce til himself and sell it without keeping for long, to people who require the same for dharma’, some say that selling here refers to exchange with other foodgrains. Some say that there is no fault in selling til produced by himself.

11. Vasishtha - Liquids may be exchanged with liquids in equal or less measure; til, rice, food and man can also be exchanged.

12. Manu - If brahmana sells flesh, lac and salt, he will be a ‘fallen’ brahmana. If he sells milk for three days, he becomes sudra; if he sells other prohibited materials knowingly for seven days, he becomes vysya.

13. Yama - One should not accept in danam even a cow; two cows should never be accepted. If one sells cow received in danam, it will burn seven generations. The seller of cow will suffer in naraka for years equal to a thousand per hair on the cow. The sinner who uses til in acts other than danam, oil bath and homam will be born a worm in excreta. Til, even if purchased for a price or got in danam, should not be sold.

14. Bodhayana - Seller of til sells Pitrus; seller of rice sells pranas.

15. Parasara - Til and liquids should not be sold. They can be exchanged with foodgrains of equal measure. In selling grass and wood, the same rule applies to brahmana. The rule for til applies to liquids like ghee.

16. Gautama - Things not to be sold to brahmana in vaisya livelihood - perfume, liquids, food, til, jute cloth, silk, skin, dyed cloth, cloth cleaned by washerman, milk, its forms, root, fruit, flower, medicine, honey, flesh, grass, water and poisonous material. Cows should not be sold to a killer. Man, barren cow, young calf and pregnant cow should not be sold even if not subject to violence. Some say that land, paddy, barley, goat, sheep, horse, bull, milk - cow and cart - bull are not to be sold. Liquids may be exchanged with liquids and cows with cows. Til should not be exchanged with anything other than foodgrain. Salt and food should not be exchanged with anything. While suffering from severe hunger, cooked food may be exchanged with rice of proper measure. If not possible, one may survive by selling or exchanging prohibited things. One should not live with sudra’s means of livelihood. When there is danger to life, that can also be done. ‘Sudrakarma’ is eating the remnants.

17. Vyasa - One who kills pranas has killed everything, as they are the cause of dharma, artha (wealth), kama (desire) and moksha (liberation); the saviour of pranas has saved everything.

18. Saatatapa - Brahmana becomes ‘fallen’ immediately if he sells lac, flesh, and salt. If he sells milk for three days, he becomes sudra. If he sells uncooked meat, liquor, soma, lac, salt and ghee and other prohibited articles, he should observe chandrayana.

19. Parasara - Brahmana, along with six karmas, can get agriculture also done.

20. Manu’s words, ‘One should somehow leave agriculture, which is quite violent and dependent on others; the plough kills the land and beings on land’ refer to agriculture done on one’s own. So also Gautama says, ‘agriculture and trade not done by himself’.

21. Brihaspati has assented to agriculture done by oneself - ‘Money - lending, agriculture and trade may be got done by others; in times of adversity he can do himself; by doing so, brahmana will not attract sin.’ It is logical and applies to one who is powerless to get itdone by others in adverse condition. In other yugas, arranging to get the above done by others is dharma in adversity. In Kaliyuga, arranging to get the above done by others is prime dharma; doing by oneself is dharma in adversity. Parasara, who started to talk about dharmas in Kaliyuga by saying, ‘Now I shall tell about dharmas and acharas of grihastha in Kaliyuga’, mentions by way of achara, ‘Agriculture also should be got done’; hence getting it done is important. In Madhaviyam it is stated that as per smriti, in times of adversity, one can do himself; hence it is dharma in adversity.

22. Yagnavalkya - The following are not to be sold by brahmana, even while living on vysya means of livelihood - Fruit, stone, silk, soma creeper, man, eatables, creepers, til, food, liquids, salt - petre, curd, milk, water, ghee, weapon, liquor, beeswax, honey, lac, kusa grass, clay, skin, flower, wool, hair, buttermilk, poison, land, white silk, salt, flesh, one - hoofed animal, lead, spinach, green medicines, food cakes for animals, cows, perfumes. Til can be exchanged with equal food grains for dharma. One will become ‘fallen’ by selling lac, salt and flesh. He will become sudra by selling milk, curd and liquor. In adversity the means of livelihood may be agriculture, sculpture (including cooking), servitude for hire, vidya, money - lending, cart, mountain, service, marshy place (with grass and trees), king and begging. As it is said, ‘in adversity’, the normally prohibited means of livelihood is permitted in adversity. Like agriculture done by himself is permitted for brahmanas and kshatriyas in adversity, sculpture etc. are also permitted. Out of these, vidya given on salary is livelihood. Money - lending can be done on his own. Cart is included because it carries foodgrains etc. Mountain is included because of firewood, roots etc.

23. Parasara on bulls to be included and excluded in agriculture - Bullock, which is hungry, thirsty and tired, should not be tied. Bullock, which is handicapped, diseased and eunuch, should not be tied. Bullock, which is strong - bodied, free from disease, satisfied, not tired and not eunuch, can be tied for ploughing till midday; they should then be bathed.

24. Haaritha - Agriculture with eight bullocks is dharmic. Ploughing for livelihood is with six bullocks. One who ploughs with four bullocks is cruel. One who ploughs with only two bullocks commits crime same as killing brahmana. Prajapati has said that use of young calves, old bullocks and weak animals for ploughing and carrying loads should not be done.

25. Parasara specifies that japas and homms should be done as per ability in order to rid of blemish due to troubling animals - Mantrajapa, Devapooja, homam and Vedic study should be done. As per capacity, brahmanas numbering one, two, three or four, should be fed.  

26. Parasara talks further about increased sin in agriculture - The sin earned by a fisherman in one year will be earned in one day by brahmana living on plough. One who catches animals with net, fisherman, killer of animals with weapons, killer of birds and agriculturist who does not do danam - these five are equal in sin.

27. Parasara gives reparation for the sin - Agriculturist gets rid of sins from felling trees, breaking earth and killing worms and insects by ‘kalayagna’ (doing yaga in field and giving alms). Agriculturist does not gather sin by giving one - sixth to the king, one - twentyfirst to Devas and one - thirtieth to brahmanas. The agriculturist, being close to the heap of foodgrains, who does not give danam to brahmanas, is thief; sinner and killer of brahmana.

28. In Chandrika - I shall tell about the sin of the greedy man, who accumulates foodgrains in his house without giving danam. That evil man will be a tree without flowers and fruits in arid place for 1000 Deva years. Then he will be born a poor, diseased and foolish man on earth in lowly clan.

29. Haaritha - Agriculturists, who incur sin of breaking earth, cutting plants and creepers and killing worms and ants, become purified by ‘kalayagna’; no doubt.

30. For agriculturist, this kalayagna is ‘nitya’ and ‘kamya’. If not performed, there is fault; hence nitya. As it removes sin, it is kamya

31. Narada - Brahmana should not live on money - lending and trade even in difficult adversities. Brahma weighed money - lending and killing of brahmana. Money - lending was heavier than killing of brahmana.

32. Manu - One who lives on interest can collect every month one - eightieth part towards interest. Kshatriya can also live on this means; in adversity all can live on this means.

33. Yagnavalkya - In conditional loan, one - eightieth part every month is dharmic interest. In absence of condition in loan, interest should be of two, three, four and five percent for all the four varnas respectively.

34. Parasara - The five mahayagnas and yaga dikshas should be performed with foodgrains collected by him from the field he has tilled.

35. Bodhayana - Study of Vedas is opposed to agriculture. Agriculture is opposed to Veda. One who is capable can do both; one who is not capable should leave agriculture.

36. Aasvalayana - Brahmanas should never resort to slavery for livelihood.

33. Kshatriya dharmas

1. Manu - Out of the six karmas of brahmana, the three karmas of teaching of Veda, performing yagas for others and acceptance of danam do not apply to kshatriya and vaisya.

2. Yagnavalkya - For kshatriya the important dharma is protection of citizens. For vaisya swadharmas are money - lending, agriculture, trade and rearing of cattle.

3. He mentions the special dharmas of good kshatriya, who is ceremonially coronated - The king should be highly enthusiastic, keen on danam, grateful, serving elders, humble, of satvic qualities, born in good lineage, true in speech, pure, fast in actions, free from forgetfulness, generous, not hard - hearted, dharmic, free from vices like gambling, of pure intellect, valorous, knower of secrets, knower of his own defects and having capability in livelihoods like Atmavidya, economics and cattle rearing and in three Vedas. He should be patient with brahmanas, straight with friends, valorous with enemies and kind like father with servants and citizens. As protection of citizens is the best dharma, the king, who rules righteously, gets one - sixth of the merit of his citizens. He should be alert in protecting citizens from cheats, thieves, frauds, robbers and (false) astrologers. The king should honour good people and punish the bad. He should seize the wealth of the corrupt and throw them out of the country. He should encourage Srotriyas with danam etc. and make the live in his kingdom. The king, who takes away wealth unrighteously from the kingdom and fills his coffers, loses his wealth quickly and will be destroyed along with his relatives. The fire arising out of grief of people, who are tortured, will not retract without burning the king’s lineage, wealth and life. He will succeed if he adopts the four means - sama (conciliation), dana (gift), bheda (distinction) and danda (punishment). He should resort to danda when it is not possible with the first three means. In accordance with place and time, he should adopt the practice of sandhi (peace), vigraha (war), yanam (travel for war), asanam (ignoring), samsrayam (taking the help of strong person) and dvaidhibhavam (splitting army into two).

4. Manu - The king’s actions are the four yugas - kruta, treta, dvapara and kali. Hence king is himself called yuga. If the king sleeps it is kali; if he is awake it is dvapara; if he tries to observe karmas it is treta; if he keeps observing karmas it is krutayuga. The king should follow the nature of Indra, Surya, Vayu, Yama, Varuna, Chandra, Agni and Earth. Like Indra pours rain in the four rainy months, the king should pour fulfilment of the wishes of people in his kingdom. This is Indra vrata. Like Surya drawing the water from the earth with his rays during eight months, the king should draw tax from the people in his kingdom. This is Surya vrata. Like Vayu penetrates all beings, the king should penetrate in his and enemies’ kingdoms through spies. This is Vayu vrata. Like Yama punishes in time those who praise as well as those who abuse him without partiality, the king should punish citizens impartially. This is Yama vrata. Like Varuna definitely binds his enemy with Pasa (rope), the king should positively punish sinners. This is Varuna vrata. Like people become happy on seeing Full Moon, the king should make people feel happy on seeing him. This is Chandra vrata. He should be harsh with the guilty, lustrous and troublesome to enemy kings. This is Agni vrata. Like earth takes care of all beings equally, he should nourish them. This is earth vrata. The king, with the above mentioned and other means, should suppress thieves in his and other kingdoms without sloth. Even when he is in grave danger, he should not make brahmanas angry. If they become angry, they will destroy the king with his army and armoury in a second. Who with wish to be alive will trouble brahmanas, on whom Devas and worlds are dependent and for whom Veda is the wealth? Whether consecrated ceremonially or not, Agni is great Devata. Likewise whether scholar or ignorant, brahmana is great Devata. Brahmanas are worthy of worship, even if they indulge in despicable deeds sometimes; as they are highly placed Devata. The king gets one - sixth merit of Vedic study, yaga, danam and Pooja performed by brahmanas by looking after them well. They say that the king who takes one - sixth as tax from people without proper care gets their entire sin.

5. Bodhayana - What is known as poison in the world is not poison. Brahmana’s wealth is poison. Poison kills one who consumes it; brahmana’s wealth will kill one who steals it, his son and grandson. Hence the king should not steal brahmana’s wealth, as it is severe poison. He should appoint Purohita, who will guide in all matters; he should live under his order. If he goes to war, he should not return with defeat.

6. Gautama - It is the king’s dharma to protect all beings and punish righteously. He should protect brahmanas who have done Vedic study and abrahmanas who are not capable of any occupation for survival. He should take care of properties that do not fetch tax. He should take care of brahmacharis doing Vedic study. He should find proper means for defeating enemies. When fear of enemies is there, he should find greater means. He should travel on vehicles like chariots, armed with weapons like bow. In war he should stand and fight and not run away. There is no fault in his killing enemies in war. But he will incur sin by killing the horseless, the charioteerless, the unarmed, one who joins hands in respect, one who has spread his hair, one who shows his back, the seated, one on high ground, one mounted on tree, the emissary and one who calls himself cow and brahmana.

7. Wealth found in buried treasure belongs to king. The king is the lord of everything, except for the wealth of srotriya.

8. Vyasa - Poison is not poison; wealth of brahmana and Devatas is called poison. Hence that should never be stolen.

9. Aapasthambha - Where there is no fear of thief in village or forest in a kingdom, that king has done good to his people. One, who gives adequate land and money to brahmanas as per their qualification, reaches undecaying worlds. If one sets out to restore the money stolen by thieves and gets killed by thieves at that time, it is said that it is yagna, where his body is the sacrificial post and dakshina is unlimited. Thus it is stated that the valorous persons, who die while fighting thieves for getting back brahmana’s belongings stolen from villages and cities, are considered as having done great yagas.

10. Manu - The king should not collect tax from a srotriya even in times of emergency. Srotriya, living in his country, should not suffer from hunger. The king, who does not look after his kingdom and troubles the people, will lose quickly the kingdom and his own life along with his relatives.

11. Parasara - The king should punish the village, where brahmacharis without observance of vows and Vedic study receive alms; as it is giving food to thieves. Armed, meting out punishment, protecting people by defeating army of enemies, Kshatriya should protect earth with dharma. Just as the maker of garlands plucks flowers from garden without troubling them, the king should collect tax from people. He should not destroy citizens like the seller of charcoal uprooting trees. Both the yogi - sanyasi and the kshatriya who gets killed in war go to upper worlds after tearing into Suryamandalam. If the valorous man, who, surrounded by enemy in war, gets killed, does not speak words of fear, he reaches worlds of undecaying merit. One, who goes to protect his army, beaten and running here and there, will get the merit of yaga. The soldier, who dies of injuries from arrow, mace and club, is taken and comforted by Deva women. The valorous man, who dies in war, is met speedily by several Deva women, who invoke him as their husband. The realm reached by many yagas and penance by brahmanas, desiring swarga, is attained by soldiers who die in war. For the injured soldier, into whose mouth the blood oozing out of his forehead falls, that blood is stated to be equal to somapanam in yaga.

12. In Vishnupurana - The king who punishes the evil men and protects the good and takes care of the state of varnas will attain desired realms of merit.

34. Discussion of Vysya dharmas

1. Manu - Iswara has prescribed cattle rearing, danam, yaga, Vedic study, trade by travelling on land and in water, money - lending and agriculture as occupations for vysya.

2. Haaritha - Vysya should do cattle rearing, agriculture, trade, danam as per his capacity, abd feeding brahmanas.

3. Parasara - Vysya’s occupations are said to be profit in money - lending etc., gem examination etc., cattle rearing, agriculture and trade.

4. Manu - After upanayanam, vysya should get married and always attend to agriculture etc. and cattle rearing. He should know the relative prices of gems, pearls, corals, metals, clothing, perfumes and liquids. He should know completely the rules for sowing seeds, the positive and negative points of land, measures and weighments in balance. He should know the relative merits of commodities and types of lands, gains and losses in commodities and development of cattle. He should learn the proper salaries to employees, many languages of men, the methods of protecting commodities, the things to be added to them and the methods of buying and selling. He should make good effort to increase wealth with this dharma. He should specially give danam of food to all living beings

35. Discussion of Sudra dharmas

1. Parasara - Service to the three varnas is stated to be the best dharma for sudra. It is useless to do any dharma other than this.

2. Parasara again if livelihood not available by service - It is not wrong for sudras to earn livelihood by selling salt, honey, oil, curd, buttermilk, ghee and milk. Parasara also lists things not to be sold even in adversity - By selling liquor and flesh, by eating prohibited items and by uniting with prohibited women, sudra becomes ‘fallen’ immediately. By drinking fresh milk from cow, uniting with brahmana woman and enquiring into meaning of Vedas, sudra becomes chandala (outcaste). If sudras abandon the prescribed service of three varnas and do other things, their lifespan will be reduced, they will die and go to naraka; no doubt.

3. Manu - The best dharma for sudra is service to brahmanas. Sudra, who is pure, does service to higher varnas, is soft spoken, is free from arrogance and is dependent on three varnas like brahmanas, will be born in high caste. One who cannot do service can live on ‘karuka karmas’ (like cooking etc.) when his family is in difficulty. The acts which will help dvijas and many types of artisan’s work (carpentry, painting etc.) are called ‘karuka karmas’. If not possible to live on service to brahmana, he can survive by serving kshatriya or rich vysya. Sudra should depend only on brahmanas for attaining swarga and for livelihood. Sudra’s accomplishment consists in acquring fame of being dependent on brahmana. Service to brahmana alone is said to be the best dharma for sudra. If he does any other dharma, it is useless. By eating garlic etc. there is no sin for sudra. He is not eligible for samskaras like upanayanam. He has no right to dharmas like agnihotram. There is no bar in dharmas prescribed for him. Sudras, aware of dharma and desirous of dharma and adopting the permitted achara (conduct) of the three varnas, will not incur sin by doing dharmas like ‘pakayagnas’ without mantra and only with namaskara mantra; they will attain fame in the world. Sudra is at the top in this world and also attains meritorious realms like swarga to the extent he observes dvija’s dharma without jealousy. Even if he is capable, he should not earn money more than necessary for his family. If he gets more money he will impinge on brahmanas only. Leavings of food, worn out clothes, worthless foodgrains and decayed things should be given to sudra. ‘Leavings of food’ refers to left over food in the plate; this is regarding slave.

4. Manu on grihastha sudra - Food, which is not leavings of food on the plate, should be given to grihastha sudra every day.

5. Devala - Leavings of food should not be given to abrahmana; this is about sudra, who is not a slave. Some say that this refers to grihastha sudra. Vyaghra in the same manner - Leavings of food should be given to sudra, who is not grihastha evey day and food, which is not leavings, should be given to grihastha sudra.

6. Devala - Dharmas of sudra include service to dvijas without incurring sin, taking care of wife and family, ploughing, cattle rearing, carrying load, trade, painting, dance, music and playing instruments like flute, mridanga etc.

7. Yagnavalkya - The swadharma of sudra is service to the three varnas. If he is unable to survive on that, he can resort to vaisya occupation. Or he can live on sculpture of many figures useful to dvijas. Sudra, attached ‘wifely’ only to his wife, pure, taking care of those whom he should and performing sraadhas, should do the five yagnas regularly with the mantra, ’namah’.

8. Gautama - Sudra is the fourth varna. As he has no upanayanam, he is called ‘ekajati’. Truth, absence of anger and purity are dharmas for him also. Some say that washing hands and feet is in lieu of achamanam. He should also do sraadham without mantra. He should also protect parents and others. He should have wifely attachment only with his wife. He should serve all the three varnas and look for sustenance from them. If the first varna is not available, he can serve the next one. They should give him worn out footwear, umbrella, cloth and ‘kurcham’ (seat) and also leavings of food. Sculpture is also his occupation. When he is not capable of work, the person on whom he was dependent earlier, should take care of him. If the person of the higher varna, on whom he was dependent earlier falls on bad times, the sudra should give him wealth and take care of him; his accumulating wealth should be only for this purpose. The mantra, ‘namah’ has been blessed for him by knowers of dharma in vaisvadevam etc. Some say that he can do ‘pakayagnas’ on his own. For the other three varnas, the second birth called upanayanam is there. Since sudra does not have it, he is called ‘ekajati’; jati means birth. Grihyakara refers to samskaras prior to upanayanam - For sudra also, Nishekam, Pumsavanam, Seemanthonnayanam, Jatakarma, Namakarana, Upanishkramanam, Annaprasanam and Chowlam are to be done without mantra in prescribed times. Some say that nothing is required other than washing hands and feet in lieu of achamanam. Manu says that woman and sudra should sip water once.

9. Usanas on daily bath - Good sudra should take bath; sudra, who is not good, should wash his hands and feet. He should do ‘Amasraadham’ without mantra on Amavasya etc. ‘Swadara vritti’ means that he has no right to other asrama. ‘Kurcham’ refers to seat etc. Brahmana should give his sudra servant, used cloth, footwear etc. The person on whom the sudra was dependent, should take care of him even when he is unable to work. If that brahmana suffers without livelihood, the sudra should take care of him. The sudra’s money should be used only for that. In Vaisvadeva of sudra, knowers of dharma permit contemplating on the respective Devata (name with the fourth case) and chanting ‘namo namah’. Another says - The sloka ‘Devatabhyah Pitrubhyascha’ conveys through the word ‘namaskara’; hence it is prescribed in Pitrukarmas. Aapasthambha also says that in the homas mentioned in Gruhya, the word ‘Pakayagna’ is famous; meaning is that sudra can also do these Pakayagnas.

10. Aapasthambha - For the three varnas, not sudras and ‘fallen’ brahmanas, upanayanam, Vedic study, Agnyadanam and karmas like Agnihotram are dharmas. For sudra, service to other varnas alone is dharma. Service to the earlier varna rather than the next in the order gives more strength.

11. Manu - Manu’s instruction is that whichever part of body sudra uses for troubling brahmana, that part should be cut off. No teaching (Vedic) should be given to sudra. Leavings of food and havis (offering in oblation) should not be given to him. Dharma and ceremonial vow should not be taught to him. Brahmana who teaches dharma and ceremonial vow to sudra and the sudra receiving such teaching, both go to naraka called ‘Asamvrutam’. The bar on teaching dharma to sudra relates to dharma like Vedic Agnihotra etc.; as it is stated, ‘with brahmana in front, Itihasas and Puranas can be told to all the four varnas’, listening to Itihasas and Puranas is permissible for sudra. Further, it must be stated that there is no bar in teaching sudra about dharmas of sudra expounded in smriti. If not, since they do not observe dharmas like Aasoucham (pollution), Aamasraadham etc. prescribed in Gautama sutras etc., the sastras prescribing sudra dharmas may lose authority. (Hence prohibition (on teaching Vedic dharma to sudra) should not be held to be useless on the grounds: it is unsuitable dharma; It is not dharma common to all four varnas like non - violence, non - stealing etc.; It is not also dharma prescribed for sudras like purity, achamanam, sraadham etc.; one will not be interested in listening to dharma not to be observed by him. Further, there is strength in listening to any dharma like in passages, ‘listening and seeing dharma will also give result’. As there is no fault in listening to others’ dharma like listening to swadharma, as the first three varnas have right to listen to dharma of all four varnas, as the first three asramis have right to listen to dharmas of all four asramis, as women of the three varnas have right to listen to dharmas of males, as males have right to listen to dharmas of females, sudra can also develop interest in listening to dharma of others; hence the above prohibition is necessary.)

12. Gautama - If sudra speaks harshly and disrespects dvijas, his tongue should be cut off; if he disrespects by beating with stick etc., his hand; if he unites with Arya (of first three varnas) women, his generative organ; his wealth should also be confiscated. If he is the guard of Arya women, killing him is extra punishment. If sudra listens wantonly to Veda, his ears should be filled with tin and lac. If he pronounces Vedic words, his tongue should be cut off. If he retains them in his mind, his body should be dismembered. One who wishes to be equal to Aryas in seat, bed, words and path should be punished. Aapasthambha mentions the punishment - Beating him with stick is punishment to one who tries to be equal in words, path, bed and seat.

13. Aapasthambha gives Prayaschitta for the brahmana who serves sudra for a living - Brahmana, who serves sudra for a living, can get rid of his sin gathered in one day by observing with discipline ‘trishavanasnanam’ and ‘chaturthakalabhojanam’ for three years. (‘Chaturthakalabhojanam’ is eating midday lunch today, followed by night dinner tomorrow.)

14. Parasara - Brahmana, who eats food of sudra, joins sudra, sits equally with sudra and obtains knowledge from sudra is a ‘fallen’ brahmana, though he is equal to Agni.

15. Narada - For sudras in the path of dharma, tonsure once in a month, purification like vysyas and eating leavings of dvijas is prescribed.

36. Glory of Brahmanas

1. Aapasthambha - There are four varnas - brahmana, kshatriya, vaisya and sudra. Out of these, the latter varna is better by birth than the former.

2. Manu - Brahmana is the best because of birth from Brahma’s face, his birth before other varnas, his sustaining the Vedas and his teaching dharma to all. Brahmadeva did penance and created brahmana first from his face for holding havya (oblation for devas) and kavya (oblation for Pitrus) and for protecting the whole world. Which being is greater than brahmana, from whose mouth Devas eat havya and Pitrus eat kavya? The birth of brahmana is the undecaying body of dharma. He is born for dharma and attains moksha. Even at birth, brahmana is the best on earth, capable of protecting all beings. All wealth on earth is that of brahmana only. Owing to the glory of birth from Brahma’s face, brahmana is fit to receive all this wealth. Brahmana eats his wealth only; wears his wealth only; gives his wealth only. By the grace of brahmana, others enjoy. This is praise; as, in theft etc., responsibility, punishment and prayaschitta have been specified.

3. Yagnavalkya - In the beginning of kalpa, Brahmadeva pondered and created bahmanas for protection of Vedas, satisfaction of Pitrus and Devas and for protection of dharma.

4. Saatatapa - Brahmana is born a great soul at birth itself. Being the best among the varnas, he is mother, father and guru for all beings. For them, there is none worthy of worship in the three worlds. Because of knowledge of Vedas, they worship each other and are gurus, guests and persons of help to each other; they do good to others and themselves reach good state. One, who wishes to worship Devata of his liking, should please brahmanas by all means and efforts. In the bodies of Devas, there is only one Devata in one body. All Devatas are in brahmana’s body. Hence one should always worship them properly.

5. Sruti also - ‘Brahmana is all Devatas’; ‘All Devatas live in brahmana who knows Veda’.

6. Manu - Out of all moving and non - moving things, the living beings are the best. Out of living beings, those that live on intellect are the best; out of them, humans; out of them, brahmanas; out of them, knowers of Veda; out of them, knowers of meaning of Veda; out of them, those who observe karmas as specified in Vedas; out of them, knowers of Paramatma. It is conveyed through this that even Brahmagnanis should observe karmas.

37. Explanation of Anulomajati

1. Manu - In all varnas, those born of wives, not held by others and of the same varna, through their husbands, belong to their respective castes. In all three varnas, sons born of women of the next higher varna, are equal to father and higher than mother. They will not be of the caste of father. Names of their castes are: ‘Moordhabhishikta, Mahishya and Karana’.

2. Devala - Out of them, those born to persons of same varna are the best. ‘Anulomajas’ are lower than them. Those who are outside the varnas are called ‘Antaralas’. ‘Pratilomajas’ are ‘fallen’ people.

3. Manu - Children born of higher - varna father and lower - varna mother are called ‘Anulomas’. One who is born of brahmana father and kshatriya mother is called ‘swarna brahmana’. For him, study of Ayurveda, Atharvaveda and Dhanurveda and mounting on elephant and horse are specified. One who is born of a brahmana man and kshatriya woman in adultery is called ‘nakshatrajivaka’. Those born to brahmana man and woman of other three varnas, to kshatriya man and woman of other two varnas and to vysya man and woman of the last varna are called ‘Apasadas’.

4. Yagnavalkya - One who is born of a brahmana man to kshatriya woman is called ‘Moordhavasikta’, born to vaisya woman is ‘Ambashta’ and, to sudra woman is ‘Nishada’ or ‘Parasava’. One who is born of a kshatriya man to vysya woman is called ‘Mahishya’, to sudra woman is ‘Ugra’. One who is born of a vysya man to sudra woman is ‘Karana’. This rule is stated to apply to women accepted in marriage.

5. Sankasmriti says, ‘One who is born of a brahmana man to kshatriya woman becomes a kshatriya only; born of a kshatriya man to vysya woman is vysya; born of vysya man to sudra woman is sudra only’. If there is contradiction here to what was given earlier, it is clarified that the Sankasmriti passage is more about specifying dharmas of kshatriya etc. to them than defining varnas like kshatriya or rejecting the ‘Moordhavasikta’ caste. Hence Vignaneswara says that upanayanam should be performed with staff, skin and upavitam appropriate to that varna.

6. Manu - One who is born of brahmana man to vysya woman is ‘Ambashta’; to sudra woman, is ‘Nishada’ or ‘Parasava’. One who is born of kshatriya man to vysya woman is ‘Mahishya’ or ‘Ambashta’. He should study Ayurveda of eight parts for a living. One who is born of kshatriya man to vysya woman in adultery is called ‘Soundika’. His occupation is rearing and selling of horses. One who is born of vysya man to sudra woman is ‘Ugraka’. His occupation is selling of goats and wool and guarding the women’s apartments of kngs. If he is born of adultery, he is called ‘Ghatakara’. His occupation is selling of mats. One who is born of kshatriya man to sudra woman is ‘Ugra’ of cruel nature. One who is born of brahmana man to vysya woman is ‘Nishada’. His living is on mantra and medicine. If he is born adulterously he is called ‘Ghatakara’. His occupation is shaving above navel and pottery. One who is born of brahmana man to sudra woman is ‘Parasava’. His occupation is worship of Bhadrakali, dance and musical instruments. If he is born adulterously he is called ‘Nishada’. He lives by torturing animals deceitfully and through music. One who is born of kshatriya man to sudra woman is ‘Doushyanta’. His occupation is catching wild animals and fishes and making weapons like sword etc. If he is born adulterously he is called ‘Sulika’. His occupation is punishing the guilty with spear as per king’s orders. One who is born of ‘Mahishya’ man to ‘Karana’ woman is called ‘Rathakara’. His other names are Taksha, Silpi, Vartaki, Lohakara and Karmakara. For him, upanayanam, Adanam and yajanam are there. Study of Vastu sastra is also for him. His occupations are building temples, making idols of Devatas, making vessels for yaga, making gold ornaments, making implements for tilling like plough and painting.

7. Sankar - For Rathakara, occupations are samskaras of yaga, Adanam and upanayanam, and study of Rathasutra and Vastuvidya.