Smriti Mukta Phalam

57. Upanayanam - Danda (Staff)

1. Manu - Brahmana should use danda made of bilva and palasa; kshatriya, banyan and teak; vysya, peepal (asvatha) and fig (udumbara), based on compatibility of nature. Brahmana has relation with lustre of Brahman; bilva is a form of lustre of Brahman, as Sruti says, ‘Bilva came up at the place from where Surya came up’. Brahmana is connected wih Gayatri; as Sruti says, ‘Palasa is connected wih Gayatri’, both have the connection with Gayatri. Hence brahmana is eligible to use them both. Banyan and kshatriya are of same varna, as Sruti says, ‘Of trees, banyan is kshatriya; king is kshatriya’. Teak strong; kshatriya is also strong. As both are strong, kshatriya is eligible to use them both. Peepal and vysya have relation with vigour. Sruti says, ‘Asvatha (peepal) is vigour of Maruts; Maruts are vysyas among Devas’. Fig and vysya have connection with cattle. That vysya looks after cattle is well known. Fig is form of cow, as Sruti says. Hence vysya is eligible to use them both. Though dual phrase is used, option is the intent. Witness - 1. Yama - The danda for brahmana is bilva or palasa; for kshatriya, banyan or teak; for vysya, fig or ichi; because of commonality of nature. If these are not available, all can take danda of any tree, which is fit for yagna.

2. Gautama - For all varnas, any tree fit for yagna can be used as danda.

3. Aapasthambha - Danda of Palsa for brahmana; dandamade from branch of banyan tree and upside down for kshatriya; ‘Ilandai’ or fig for vysya. Some specify that tree fit for yagna is danda for all irrespective of varna.

4. Manu - Danda is specified of height upto head for brahmana; upto forehead for kshatriya; upto nose for vysya. Dandas should be straight, undamaged, attractive, not frightful for men, with skin and unspoilt by fire.

5. Gautama - Dandas should be undamaged by creepers etc., bent down from top like sacrificial post, with flat faces and measuring upto head, forehead and tip of nose.

6. Vyasa - Dandas must be measuring upto head, forehead and tip of nose and bent down from top like sacrificial post.

7. Sankar - For the three varnas, dandas should measure upto head, forehead and shoulder.

8. Vasishtha - For the three varnas, dandas should respectively measure upto chest, forehead and head.

9. In Kurmapurana - Dvija should have danda made of bilva or palasa and measure upto head. Or he can have danda made from tree fit for yagna, beautiful and undamaged.

10. Bodhayana - Dandas must measure upto head, forehead and tip of nose and made from tree fit for yagna.

58. Upanayanam - Ajinam (Deerskin)

1. Gautama - The skins of black antelope, ruru (kind of deer) and goat are uttariyas (upper cloths) for the three varnas.

2. Manu also prescribes the same.

3. Aapasthambha - Skin must be used as uttariya.

4. Bharaskara - The skin of Ena (kind of black antelope) is uttariya for brahmana; ruru (kind of deer) skin for kshatriya; goat or cow skin for vaisya. Or all can have cow skin as uttariya.

5. Brihaspati - The skins of black antelope, ruru (kind of deer) and goat are uttariyas (upper cloths) respectively for the three varnas. Or all can have cow skin as uttariya.

6. Sankar - The skins of black antelope, ruru (kind of deer) and goat are uttariyas (upper cloths).

59. Upanayanam - Cloth

1. Gautama - ‘Sanam’, ‘kshaumam’, ‘chiram’, ‘kutapam’ and undyed cotton cloths are suitable for all. ‘Sanam’ is woven from jute. ‘Kshaumam’ is woven from bark of tree, ‘atasi’ or ‘kshuma’ (linseed). ‘Chiram’ is woven from darbha grass etc., some say it is white silk. ‘Kutapam’ is wool woven from hilly sheep’ hair.

2. Gautama again - Some say that dyed cloth is also suitable. In that case, dye of tree is suitable for brahmana; dye of ‘manjishta’ (madder plant) for kshatriya; yellow dye for vysya.

3. Aapasthambha - Sanam, kshaumam and ajinam are the cloths respectively for the three varnas. Some say that cotton dyed with ‘kashayam’ is for brahmana; dyed with manjishta for kshatriya; yellow dye for vysya.

4. Manu - Sanam, kshaumam and avikam are specified for the three varnas. Avikam is woven from sheep’s hair.

5. Vasishtha - Cotton cloth, white and ‘ahata’ (new, unwashed) for brahmana; kshaumam with dye of manjishta for kshatriya; silk of yellow dye for vysya.

6. Prachetas - ‘Ahata’ is slightly white, new, with borders and unused cloth. It is pure in all karmas.

7. In upanayanam, as per procedure, first the loin cloth (kaupina) should be worn; then ‘ahata’ cloth; then uttariya of skin of black antelope.

8. Yama in the same vein - One of the following should be worn: cotton cloth, kshaumam, kutapam, skin, balbajam (kind of coarse grass), wool. Undergarmaent must be white cloth.

9. Aapasthambha sutra says, ‘Cloth cut from the weaving loom the same day must be tied with mantras’; hence it must not be concluded that a part of used cloth can be used as kaupina. This principle also comes up in the statement, ‘On fourth day a different cloth must be tied and the previous cloth removed with mantra’. Hence meaning is that the cloth should be worn above the kaupina.

10. In Sarani - Smritisangraha - ‘Seating on the right side boy wearing kaupina and pure’.

11. In Trikandi - For the boy, wearing kaupina, achamanam, parishechanam, aposanam, pranahuti etc. are there.

12. Bharadvaja - Brahmachari must wear upavita, ajinam, mekhala, danda, kamandalu, cloth of his varna and kaupinam. On fourth day, mekhala, danda, skin and upavita should be worn new, discarding the old. Cloths may be retained.

13. Saatatapa - On the fourth day, after bath and doing auspicious things, Guru, along with three brahmanas and the disciple, should go east or north of the village; not in other directions. If palasa tree is not there in east or north directions, he should go in the direction where it is there, reach the tree, perform punyahavachanam with the brahmanas, sprinkle holy water on the foot of the tree, spread water with cowdung in that area, worship Brahma in the tree, go round and prostrate. He should then make the disciple wear new kaupina, danda, ajinam, upavita and mekhala, make him discard the old kaupina etc. and get them tied properly on the tree branch. The disciple should give danam of cloth to Guru and dakshina to brahmanas. This ‘balasakarma’ is mentioned in smritis and written about in Grihya bhashyam etc.

14. In Smrityarthasara also - The three varnas must have dandas respectively of palasa, banyan and peepal or tree fit for yagna, measuring upto head, forehead and nose. They should also wear kaupina and katisutra (waistband). They must be new. For three days after upanyanam, the boy must avoid food of salty and pungent taste, sleep on ground and observe vrata (vow) with brahmacharya. On fourth day, he should discard kaupina, danda, skin, mekhala and upavita. There is no rule for discarding cloths.

15. As wearing kaupina on the day of upanayanam is established from many smritis, it appears necessary. Authority for wearing kaupina from a part of the cloth above is rare.

60. Upanayanam - Mekhala (Girdle)

1. Manu - For brahmana, mekhala must be rolled from ‘munja’ grass, of three strings, equal and soft. For kshatriya, mekhala is ‘bowstring’made of ‘moorva’ grass. For vysya, mekhala is rolled from jute threads. If ‘munja’ grass is not available, kusa, asmantaka or balbaja grass may be used; after rolling of strings three times, it will have knots - 1, 3 or 5; this is suitable for all varnas. The statement, ‘If ‘munja’ grass is not available’ includes ‘moorva’ and jute also. The alternatives of grass do not specify ‘in the order of varnas’. Asmantaka is a tree; ‘balbaja’ is a kind of grass.

2. Vyasa - Mekhala for brahmana must be made from ‘munja’ grass. If munja is not available, kusa can be used. Knots can be one or three.

3. Yama - (as per Manu’s statement), 3.Paitinasi, 4.Vasishtha, 5.Prachetas, 6.Gautama, 7.Bodhayana and 8.Aapasthambha have prescribed the same.

4. Samvartha says that katisutra (mekhala) should be worn - Sroutha smatha karma performed without katisutra is entirely useless. Sruti says that he is naked.

5. This is same for brahmachari and grihastha; as it is known that in the absence of katisutra, any karma is fruitless and even if wearing cloth, he is naked.

61. Upanayanam - Bhikshacharanam

1. Manu - Taking his favourite danda, after performing Surya upasthanam and going round Agni, brahmachari should do bhikshacharanam (wandering about begging for alms). Brahmana, who has been initiated into upanayanam, should beg saying, ‘Bhavati bhiksham dehi’; kshatriya, ‘Bhiksham bhavati dehi’; vaisya, ‘Dehi bhiksham bhavati’.

2. Gautama - The three varnas should use the term ‘bhavati’ respectively at beginning, middle and end.

3. Bodhayana - Brahmana should beg saying, ‘Bhavati bhiksham dehi’; kshatriya, ‘Bhiksham bhavati dehi’; vaisya, ‘Dehi bhiksham bhavati’.

4. It should be known that though bhikshacharanam has been specified as part of upanayanam, this rule applies always.

5. Manu on rules of bhiksha (alms) as part of upanayanam - The first bhiksha must be begged from mother, sister, mother’s sister or whichever woman would give without disrespect.

6. Gautama - The first bhiksha must be begged from mother or whichever woman would give without disrespect or that kind of brahmana. First bhiksha must be begged from woman; not from pregnant woman or widow.

7. Author of Karika - The first bhiksha must be begged from mother or whichever woman would give without disrespect; then from father, outsiders, Acharya and relatives.

8. Vasishtha - First bhiksha must be sought from man who would not disrespect; or similar woman. He should say to man, ‘Bhavan bhiksham dadatu’ and to woman, ‘Bhavati bhiksham dehi’. He should first beg from mother. Upto close of mounjikarma, he should beg for ‘Aamam’ (uncooked grains); later, upto samavartanam, he should beg for cooked food.

9. It is also mentioned in Grihya tatparya darsanam about ‘Aama’ bhiksha - For three days, ‘Aama’ bhiksha every day and later, Anna bhiksha must be sought.

10. Vyasa on the rules for brahmachari’s daily bhiksha - Wearing uttariya (upper cloth) as per Grihya, taking danda and vessel and prostrating to Surya and Guru, he should go silently for bhiksha to dvijas’ homes.

11. Manu - Brahmachari should be pure and seek bhiksha every day from the homes of those who have knowledge of Veda and are performing yaga and those who are excellent in performing their karmas. He should not beg in the houses of Guru and his gnatis (paternal relatives) and relatives. If other houses are not there, he can beg in relatives’ homes; if relatives are not there, in gnatis’ homes; if they are also not there, homes of gnatis of Guru. If those who are well versed in Vedas and yagna are not there, he can then beg from others’ homes. He should not beg in homes of those who are blighted by ‘mahapatakas’ (great sins).

12. Yagnavalkya - For his basic requirement, brahmachari should beg from faultless brahmanas. The three varnas should use the term ‘bhavati’ respectively at beginning, middle and end.

13. In Gautama’s statement, ‘Bhiksha can be had from all varnas except the cursed and ‘fallen’ and Vyasa’s statement, ‘The three varnas can beg from homes of same varna or all varnas’, the term ‘all’ refers to the natural three varnas; that too, if people of same varna are not available. Bhavishyapurana in the same vein - Bhagavan said that if people of same varna are not available, one can beg from all except for sudra.

14. “If bhiksha is not available one can beg from all four varnas” refers only to emergency. Vishnu in the same vein - One can beg only from kshatriyas and vaisyas, who observe achara and karmas and are virtuous; in emergency one can beg from all four varnas.

15. Angiras - If one does not get food, he can take from sudra only ‘aama’ (grains) enough for one time.

16. Parasara - If dvija, who is studying Veda, eats food from sudra, the sudra will get the strength of Veda; the dvija will become sudra.

17. Yagnavalkya - Brahmachari brahmana should not eat somebody’s food except in emergency. Only in sraadham he can eat without harm to his vow of brahmachari (discarding liquor, meat etc.). Manu also –Brahmachari should eat only food from bhiksha every day; food not from only one person. Eating food from bhiksha is said to be equal to fasting. If requested in karmas for Devas and Pitrus, he can eat like a sanyasi, discarding liquor, meat etc. This does not affect his vow of brahmacharya.

18. Atri - The greatness of saints engaged in austerities and eating only vegetables, drinking only water and drinking only gruel of barley is not equal to one - sixteenth of that of brahmachari who eats only food from bhiksha. The austerity of taking only the urine of cow, boiled to golden colour, for 12 years is not equal to eating food from bhiksha.

19. It is not correct to say that as bhikshacharanam is credited with strength, it is not compulsory, as Manu has laid down prayaschitta if it is not done.

20. Manu - If brahmachari, free from diseases, does not do bhikshacharanam and samidhadhanam for 7 days, he should observe Avakirni vrata (vow).

21. Yama - One should not take bhiksha more than required for his food. One who takes more bhiksha due to desire attracts the sin of thief. One who gives to brahmana the food from bhiksha attains to terrible naraka; the one who eats also attracts sin. Hence one must not take bhiksha more than required.

22. In Smritisangraha - Brahmachari must not make all of food from bhiksha as leavings (uchishta). If he cannot eat whole of the food in the plate, he should bury it in ground; or leave it in water.

23. Aapasthambha on if the food from bhiksha is more by chance - One must not make all of food from bhiksha as leavings (uchishta). If he cannot eat whole of the food in the plate, he should bury it in ground; or leave it in water; or give it to Arya (not sudra); or give it to sudra servant of Acharya.

24. Aapasthambha again - In evening and morning he should take bhiksha in a bowl. He should not take bhiksha from Pratiloma jatis and ‘fallen’ persons. The dharma from yaga, danam and homa and the children, cattle, Brahmic lustre and food of women, who refuse bhiksha to good brahmachari, will be jeopardised by that brahmachari; hence brahmacharis asking for bhiksha should not be refused.

25. This refers to brahmachari who observes vows and studies Veda. Vasishtha and Parasara - The king should punish the village where brahmacharis without observance of vow and Vedic study take bhiksha and live on it; because it is giving food to thieves.

26. Atri - If one eats bhiksha, salt and vegetable dishes given direct from hand (without spoon), the one who eats becomes impure; the giver also does not attain to swarga.

27. Manu - After taking bhiksha and giving that food to Guru as much as required and doing achamanam, the brahmachari should purify himself, sit facing east and eat.

28. Gautama - If Guru is not near at hand, the disciple should inform his wife, son, co - student or srotriya and then eat.

29. Aapasthambha - The disciple should keep the food from bhiksha near the Acharya and inform him. He should eat whatever Acharya gives. If Guru is not near at hand, the disciple should inform his wife or son; if they are also not there, he should inform other srotriyas and eat whatever they give. Bhikshacharanam should not be done for oneself. After eating, the disciple must wash the plate himself. Others may wash the bhiksha bowl. Some say that he should wash both himself.

30. Haaritha - If one does ‘Paryagnikaranam’ (carrying fire round the food) to the required quantity of food from bhiksha, show it to Surya and takes the permission of Guru, that food is equal to Amruta (nectar); the brahmachari who eats it will get Brahmasidhi (knowledge of Vedas).

31. Yagnavalkya - After informing Guru of Bhiksha food, taking his permission, doing Agnikaryam (Samidhadhanam) (if not done in morning) and doing Aaposanam, he should eat the food with respect and without criticism.

32. In Chandrika - One should eat in plate of metal or clay; he should then wash the plate himself.

33. Vasishtha - Sanyasi must only eat 8 kavalas (mouthful) of food; vanaprastha, 16; grihastha, 32. Brahmachari may eat as much as desired.

34. Aapasthambha - Aahitagni, bull and brahmachari must eat as much as desired; then only they reach their goal; if not, they do not attain.

62. Upanayanam - Sandhyopakramam (Commencement of Sandhya)

1. Vyasa - Learning Gayatri from Guru, the brahmachari must begin Sandhyavandanam from that evening. He should do Samidhadhanam and Bhikshacharanam both times (morning and evening). Even if he were to take food in sraadham, he should do bhikshacharanam for Guru.

2. Gautama - No Sandhyavandanam till upanayanam. After upanayanam, he should do Sandhyavandanam from that evening every day three times.

3. Prachetas - On the day of upanayanam, the disciple must learn Gayatri from Guru. He should do Sandhyavandanam after Sunset. Learning Gayatri from Guru, he should do Sandhyavandanam from that evening properly with all mantras of Sandhyavandanam.

4. In a different Smriti - From the evening of the day of upanayanam, he should do worship of Sandhya. Brahmayagna should be started the next day at noon. In case of one who has not commenced study of Veda, in Brahmayagna, he should chant Gayatri in place of Veda; rest is same.

5. Jaimini - No Sandhya etc. till Brahmopadesam. After Brahmopadesam, he should do all karmas starting from Sandhyavandanam at noon.

63. Upanayanam - Samidhadhanam

1. Yagnavalkya - Then he must do Samidhadhanam (placing of wooden sticks as oblation in fire) both times.

2. Manu - Dvija, who has been initiated into upanayanam, must do Samidhadhanam, Bhikshacharanam, sleeping on ground and service to Guru till Samavarthanam. He should bring samit (fuel sticks) from a distance and keep them at a height. He should do homa in mrning and evening with the samit without sloth. In order to see that beings on the ground do not attach to the sticks, the sticks should be kept on a rope etc. at a height.

3. Sumantu - Brahmacharya, tapas, bhikshacharanam and Agnikaryam in both Sandhyas must be done.

4. Some say that worship of Agni is only in the evening. Aapasthambha on that - Samidhadhanam must be done both in morning and evening as instructed in Grihyam. Some say that it is only in the evening.

5. Lokakshi - Some say that Agnipooja is only in evening.

6. Paijavapa on the rules for bringing Samit - Samit should be brought before Sunset from the forest in the northeast direction without hindrance.

7. Aapasthambha - One should not go after Sunset for bringing Samit.

8. Vyasa - Samit should be from palasa tree. If not available, teak, vanni, rohitakam, peepal, Arka or vanji may be used.

9. Katyayana on the size of Samit - Samit should not be thicker than thumb. Samit, which is without skin, with worms, broken lengthwise, with two branches, without knot and not strong, should not be used in homas. Samit, which is broken haphazardly, broken lengthwise, short, crooked, with holes, thin, long and thick and damaged, will spoil attainment of aim.

10. Aapasthambha - Samit, not sprinkled with ater, should not be used in homa in Agni.

11. Haaritha - In former times, Mrityudeva caught hold of brahmachari for persecuting him. Agnideva released the brahmachari. Hence brahmachari must worship Agni. The day brahmachari does not do Samidhadhanam, Mrityu will catch hold of him; hence he should do Samidhadhanam.

12. Bodhayana - Iswara, the cause of the world, gave the people to Mrityu; He did not give brahmachari alone. Then Mrityu asked for a share of brahmachari also. Iswara said, ‘ The night when he did not do Samidhadhanam is the time for you’. Hence on the day brahmachari does not do Samidhadhanam, Mrityu draws away his life in the night. Hence brahmachari must do Samidhadhanam.

13. Gautama - If Samidhadhanam and bhikshacharanam are not done for 7 days, Ajyahoma must be performed.

14. Brihaspati - One, who does not observe vow of brahmacharya for 7 days, must do Avakirni vrata (vow).

15. Manu - If an unhindered brahmachari does not do Bhikshacharanam and Samidhadhanam for 7 days, he must observe Avakirni vrata (vow).

64. Prayaschittas - Jatakarma etc. not done in time

1. Katyayana - If the time for certain karmas has arrived when certain other karmas have already been delayed and not done, the delayed karmas should be done first, followed by the rest. Prayaschitta is prescribed for any karma not done in its due time. After doing the prescribed prayaschitta, the delayed karma must be done. In case karmas from Garbhadhanam till Chowlam are not done in time as prescribed, quarter kruchram in case of adversity and half kruchram in normal time for each lapsed karma is specified. For brahmana, if upanayanam has not been done from 8 years within 16 years, Ajyahoma must be done with 8 mantras starting from ‘Imam me’ and vyahritis. Naandi may be done together. After doing Jatakarma etc. properly, upanayanam is to be performed. If not, he will be equal to sudra.

65. Number of Brahmanas to be fed

1. Bhaskara - In the first Rtu (season), 10 or 12 brahmanas must be fed; in each Rtu, 2 brahmanas; in Seemantham, Pumsavanam and Namakaranam, many brahmanas; in Chowla, 50; in upanayanam, 100; in marriage, according to one’s ability; in Aadanam, 100 brahmanas must be fed. If not capable, one must feed as per his capability and then do the karma. If money is taken in danam for performing upanayanam and brahmanas are fed with that money, the fruit of brahmana nature goes entirely to the person who gave the money. One who takes money in danam from sudra will go to naraka.

66. No Upanayanam in certain conditions

1. In Prayogaparijatham - When mother is pregnant or in menses, marriage or uanayanam for son should not be done. If done, there will be danger to the embryo, the son and the parents.

2. In Varadarajiyam - The opinion of knowers of Smriti is that if mother is in menses before Naandi sraadham, upanayanam should not be done. If done in violation of this rule, the ‘vatu’ (brahmachari) will become a ‘vratya’ (heretic), not fit for karmas. He will not be fit for study of Vedas, vrata (vow) and marriage. If upanayanam is repeated with brahmanas’ permission and after taking Brahmakurcha panchagavyam, he will be fit for karmas; no doubt. If the mother is pregnant, Chowlam for son should also not be done. It can be done before fifth month of pregnancy; not later. Saunaka says that if the wife is pregnant, karta should not perform house construction and upanayanam for son after sixth month. If wife is pregnant, upanayanam may be done before five months; not later.

67. Upanayana Kartas

1. Vyasa - Upaneta (preceptor who performs upanayanam ceremony), who is brahmana, attached to Vedas, knower of dharma, born in a good family, has a family and is free from sloth, anger and restlessness, should be chosen; sanyasi should not be chosen.

2. Vishnu - Upaneta should observe three kruchras (kind of penance) and the disciple also three kruchras. Upaneta should chant Gayatri every day. He should chant purificatory mantras.

3. VrudhaVasishtha - Father, grandfather, brother, gnatis and brother - elders can be upanetas; out of these, the latter is fit if former in order of preference is not there.

4. Aapasthambha - The ignorant man who performs upanayanam and his disciple, both move from darkness to further darkness. Hence in upanayanam, Acharya should be sought out, who is born in good family, knower of Vedas and attentive to dos and donts.

5. Bodhayana - Father is the best for performing samskaras (purificatory ceremonies) like Jatakarma. In absence of father, one born in own family, relative from other gotra, one who is of the same sutra born in Aryavartam, brahmana for all varnas and srotriya of same varna are suitable. In all varnas grihastha is the best. Widower is the worst. Brahmacharis of same gotra, called upakurvana and naishtika are of medium suitability. Vanaprasthas and sanyasis have no right to perform upanayanam. One who has conquered sense organs, tolerates heat and cold etc., has done tapas and danam, truthful, scholar, person of great memory, observes discipline, pure, free from doubt, born in good family, observes Sroutha karmas, capable of punishing and blessing, free from defects and good in Gayatri mantra is called Acharya. If upaneta is not there in both families (father’s and mothers’), the boy, on reaching the age of eight from conception, should approach for upanayanam, one who is from the same branch of Veda, or from same gotra or of same Pravara (line of ancestor rishis) or from different gotra.

68. Upanyanam of Twins etc.

1. In Sangraham - To twins born from same pregnancy, upanayanam should be done in the same altar in the same lagnam by the same Acharya. Chowlam, upanayanam, Jatakarmam, Namakaranam, the four Vedavratas and upakarmam should be done at the same time for twins.

2. In Kaladarsam - If the twins are both male, both female or one male and the other female, Jatakarma etc. should be done at the same time. Even If the mothers are different, if the babies are born in the same lagnam, Jatakarma etc. should be done in the same lagna for the two babies.

3. Details if mothers are different - Upanayanam for both babies in the same lagnam is auspicious. But two Acharyas must do it in two altars separately. One should worship his Pitrus in Naandi. To two babies, who are brothers born of two different mothers in the same lagna, upanayanam should be done in the same lagna. Acharya may do for one and father for the other. Or, brother or father’s brother amy do.

69. Upanayanam of Dumb, Mad etc. boys

1. In Smritiratnam - Suitable samskaras are prescribed for eunuch, blind, deaf, paralysed, senseless, one who has garbled speech, lame, hunchback, dwarf, long - sick, thin, limbless, mad, insane, dumb, one who lies down always, one who lacks vital organs and the impotent person also. Some say that there are no samskaras for dumb and insane persons. As they have no right to karmas, they are not bound to undergo samskaras. Their progeny is fit for samskaras and yaga. Some say it differently.

2. In other Smriti - Upanayanam should not be done for dumb and insane persons, as they have no right to karmas. Sruti says that their progeny is fit for samskaras and yaga. As Sruti says, ‘brahmana is one who is born of brahmana woman and man’, the implication of Sruti is that though dumb and insane persons are not entitled to do karma, they have a right to samskara. Acharya should do everything in the case of upanayanam of dumb or insane person. He should see him in auspicious time. He can chant Gayatri, touching the disciple. In the case of marriage of dumb or blind boy etc., rituals other than accepting the girl, Panigrahanam and Saptapadi should be done through brahmana. Saptapadi for a lame boy can be done through a brahmana. Some say that kunda and golaka, born of dvija, are also eligible for samskaras. Kunda is one who is born of a woman from a man in adultery when husband is alive. One who is born after the death of husband is golaka. Some knowers of puranas say that Pratiloma jatis of dvijas have also got samskaras.

3. Vyasa - One who is capable of absorbing Vedic knowledge and performing homa is fit for upanayanam. One may or not do upanayanam for the dumb etc.

4. Aapasthambha - Upanayanam is samskara prescribed in Veda for one who desires to learn Vedas. Hence it is not applicable to the dumb etc. It is not correct to say that just as vratas (vows) are observed separately in the study of each Veda, upanayanam should also be observed separately. Sruti says that Gayatri is taught for all Vedas. Hence by teaching Gayatri, all Vedas become taught; the same upanayanam applies for all Vedas. Upanayanam should be done separately only for Atharvana Veda, as Sruti says so clearly.

5. Aapasthambha says that there is no upanayanam for the ‘fallen’ - Upanayanam is only for those who are not sudras, nor ‘patitas’ (the ‘fallen’). It was mentioned earlier that the statement in Gautama sastram that prior to upanayanam, one can live as desired does not include ‘mahapatakas’ (great sins).

6. In Smrityarthasara - Samskara should be done suitably in the case of eunuch or the blind. Some say that the dumb and the insane are unfit for samskara. As they have no right to karmas, they are not bound to undergo samskaras. Their progeny is fit for samskaras, as Smruti says, ‘brahmana is one who is born of brahmana woman and man’. Some say that another person should do samskara (in the case of dumb and insane). Homa should be done by Acharya. The basis is that upanayanam is taking the boy to the Acharya following the rules or taking him to Savitri or making him pronounce Savitri; the remaining acts can be done as per one’s capability.

7. Bodhayana et al have instructed on the rules for upanayanam of the senseless, deaf, dumb et al. Note the same from those references.

70. Determination of Sons like Aurasa (12) et al

1. In Smritiratnam - The twelve categories of sons, who are eligible for samskaras like upanayanam if they are from the three varnas, are - Aurasa, Putrikaputra, Kshetraja, Gudhaja, Kaneena, Pounarbhava, Dattrima, Kritha, Kritrima, Dattatma, Sahodha and Apavidhdha.

2. Manu on the marks of Aurasa et al - Son born to wife of same jati, married while she was still in pre - puberty stage (kanya), is Aurasa son. He is the best of sons. Kshetraja is son born to wife of dead, eunuch or diseased husband through ‘niyoga’ (intercourse) of Gurus. Dattrima is son of the same jati, taken ritualistically with water from natural father or mother of the boy in emergency, when the recipient has no son. Kritrima is son of the same jati, who knows good and bad and has qualities of service like a son and who is adopted as son. Gudhaja is son, born to wife living at home, but to another man, not identified, but known to be of same jati. This son is regarded as the son of the husband of the mother. If the son of some other parents is abandoned by both or one of them and if he is adopted as son, he is called ‘Apavidhdha’. If a unmarried woman begets a son secretly while at her father’s home, the son is called ‘Kaneena’. He is regarded as the son of the man who marries that woman later. If a woman, who is known or not known to be pregnant, is given in marriage and boy is born later, the boy is called ‘Sahodha’; he is regarded as the son of the man who married that woman later. If a boy is bought from his parents to satisfy the buyer’s desire, he is called ’Krithaka’, whether he is eqal or not in qualities to the buyer. If a woman, abandoned by husband or after husband’s death, marries another and begets son, that boy is called ‘Pounarbhava’. If a boy has lost his parents or is abandoned by them without reason and if he entrusts himself to another, he is called ‘Svayamdatta’.

3. Yagnavalkya - ‘Aurasa’ is son born to legitimate wife of same varna. Putrikaputra is equal to him. (Putrikaputra is the daughter’s son, who by agreement becomes the son of her father). Son born to wife through brother - in - law (husband’s brother) or ‘sapinda’ (paternal relative of husband) is ‘kshetraja’. Gudhaja is son, born to wife living at home, but to another man of same varna. Son born to unmarried girl is ‘kaneena’. He is regarded as the son of his maternal grandfather. If this son is born after marriage of the girl, he is regarded as the son of the husband who marries her. Son born to woman through her second marriage is ‘pounarbhava’; this is same, whether she was violated or not. If both parents or one of them give their son in danam, the son is ‘datta’. Son sold by parents is ‘kreetha’. If a boy is regarded as son by another person by himself, the son is ‘svayamkruta’. If a boy gives himself in danam to another person, saying he is his son, the son is called ‘svayamdatta’. If woman is pregnant before her marriage, son born to her after her marriage is ‘sahodhaja’. If a boy, abandoned by his parents, is adopted by someone, who has no son, he is then called ‘apavidhdha’.

4. Manu - The wise say that the 11 sons mentioned earlier are in lieu of son so that karmas like sraadham do not lapse.

5. The passages supporting adoption of secondary sons and performing their upanayanam etc. refer to dharma of a different yuga. They have been forbidden in Kaliyuga, as it is stated, ‘Many types of sons were accepted by the sages of yore; in this Kaliyuga the powerless dvijas cannot accept those sons’.

6. Manu explains the procedure for getting ‘kshetraja’ son and the slander involved and prohibits it finally - In absence of son, a woman, with the permission of elders like husband, can obtain favourite progeny from her brother - in - law (husband’s brother) or ‘sapinda’ (paternal relative of husband) in ‘niyoga’. The male in niyoga should apply ghee all over his body and he can produce a son silently in the night. He should not produce a second son. If that woman becomes pregnant, that male and that woman should behave like father - in - law and daughter - in - law. Niyoga has not been mentioned anywhere in mantras of marriage. In the rules of marriage also, there is no mention of remarriage for a woman. This has been denigrated as animal behaviour unsuitable for humans. This started in Vena’s rule as king. That king, who enjoyed the entire earth, lost his judgement due to lust and caused mixture of varnas. From that time the virtuous despise one who allows a woman with no son to unite with brother - in - law et al.

7. Brihaspati on the above view of Manu - Manu mentions niyoga and then prohibits it himself. In Kaliyga, owing to reduced power, this cannot be done by others. In Krita, Treta and Dvapara yugas, men had a large stock of tapas and wisdom. Men in Kaliyuga face reduction in that power. Maharishis in previous yugas regarded many as sons as per their wish. In this Kaliyuga the men, who are denuded of power, cannot assume sons in that manner. The virtuous despise kshetraja and pounarbhava sons. They also criticise kaneena, sahodha, gudhaja, putrikaputra, data, apavidhdha, krita, kritrima, and dattrima sons.

71. Svikara (ceremonial adoption of son)

1. The prohibition of ‘datta’ here pertains to one who is not of the same gotra. Saunaka - Brahmanas should adopt sons from ‘sapindas’ (paternal relatives). If not available, adoption can be from person of the same gotra; not from others. Kshatriyas should adopt from the same jati or from gotra same as that of Guru. Vysyas should adopt from vysya jati and sudras from sudra jati. All varnas should adopt only from gnatis (paternal relatives); not from others. Sudras alone can adopt daughter’s son or sister’s son in emergency. Hence sages, while talking about dharmas in Kaliyuga, refer to ‘adopting sons other than datta and aurasa’ and say further that secondary sons other than datta should not be adopted. Hence datta should be adopted from brother only, if available.

2. Manu - Manu said that out of many brothers born to same mother and same father, if one has son, the other brothers also are deemed to have son. Manaviya commentary says that when brother has son, son should not be adopted from outsider. Vignaneswara on this - ‘The statement of Manu, ‘Bhratrunam ekajatanam’ is meant to prohibit adopting outsider’s son when brother’s son is suitable for adoption and is meant not to talk about the status of son’.

3. In Kaladarsam also - The implication of Manu’s instruction is that one, who has no son, should adopt brother’s son if available; not others. If not, the principle, ‘patni duhitarah’ will not match.

4. It is stated, ‘One who has entered into a different gotra loses affinity, impurity (as per rules) and status of gnati of his gotra; these three accrue to him in accord with his new gotra.’ Manu has stated, ‘Dattaputra, though coming from another gotra, if having all good qualities, will inherit wealth of the father who has adopted him. He will not get the gotra or wealth of his natural father. He cannot do sraadham etc. of his natural father. Danam of Pinda follows inheritance of gotra and wealth.’ Another Smriti states, ‘For one who has entered into another gotra, Jatakarma etc. should be done as per his new gotra of entry. By giving in danam, the gotra of birth retreats. Datta gets Parivetta’s status, role, impurity (as per rules) and Sroutha smartha karmas as per his new gotra of entry.’ All the references in these statements to a different gotra apply to one who is unable to get from his own gotra.

5. Smriti in the same vein - In absence of sons in one’s own lineage, sons in mother’s lineage are good. If not available there also, an outsider can be adopted as dattaputra. The progeny in one’s own lineage is the best; in mother’s lineage, of medium value; in another gotra, worst. Dattaputra must be adopted as per rules in one’s sutra.

6. Katyayana - The girl, not yet married, but only given in danam, does not have the status of wife; she becomes wife only after saptapadi. Likewise dattaputra becomes a son only after performing Jatakarma etc. Even if he has been given in danam by the natural father, datta, for whom Jatakarma etc. have not been done, does not get the status of son; how can he get the right to wealth.

7. Prajapati - One, who is of age suitable to be father to the son being adopted, can adopt him and give him name, gotra etc. as for Aurasaputra. At the age of 5, 7, 8 or 9 years, the parents should give the son; the couple should adopt.

8. In Sangraha also - To adopt within 12 days of birth is best; upto Chowlam, it is of medium value; after upanayanam, worst. Adopting a married person will destroy the lineage. One with asrama should not be given. In emergency one without asrama can be given; in emergency second son, who is brahmachari, can be given.

9. In another Smriti - A widow is not entitled to give away her son or adopt a son. As per Bodhayana, father is also not entitled to give the eldest son.

10. Daksha - Even in great adversity, the eldest son must not be given. A widow also must not give; one who gives will go to naraka. Widow without issue can adopt son with permission of father, brother et al; if she does otherwise, she will go to naraka. In adversity, mother following dharma can give, if she wishes, her son, like Sunassepa, who is not the eldest, is a brahmachari and within 12 years of age.

11. Aapasthambha says, ‘Giving and accepting son in danam and selling and buying son must not be done’. Yagnavalkya says, ‘Things other than wife and son can be given in danam without affecting family’. These statements refer to eldest son and only son.

12. Vasishtha in the same vein - Eldest son should not be given, nor accepted in danam; same with only son. He is for the growth of the lineage of ancestors. A woman must not give, nor accept son without permission of husband. One who adopts son must call relatives, inform the king and perform homa with vyahritis at home and adopt son, who is a close relative and near at hand.

13. In Bahvruchabrahmanam in Sunassepakhyanam - Eldest son must not be given.

14. Saunaka - Man having only son must not give danam of son; one having many sons can only give.

15. Bodhayana also - Parents are entitled to give in danam or leave or sell their son, born of their semen and blood. In the case of only son, he should not be given, nor taken. He is for the growth of the lineage of ancestors. A woman must not give, nor accept son without permission of husband.

16. Manu’s statement, ‘In emergency, the son given with sanctified water by mother or father is datta’ refers to mother giving the son with permission of her husband and not to widow. After adopting dattaputra, if aurasa (biological) son is born, datta is entitled for one - fourth of wealth.

17. Jabali talks about the merit of adoption of son - The dattaputra protects the father who adopted him because of the adoption. Datta becomes true son. The father who adopted him also becomes free from debt of Pitrus. The mantra of adoption indicates this: ‘I adopt you for dharma and growth of lineage’.

18. The passage, ‘One who abandons his own lineage and goes into another’s lineage is called ‘kandaprushta’ due to that sin; he is unfit for all karmas as he has left the lineage of his father’ refers to svayamdatta or one who has been given after marriage. The rules for adoption of son have been given by Saunaka, Bodhayana et al.

72. Determination of Guru et al

1. Manu - Father, who does karmas like Garbhadhanam as per rules and nourishes with food, is called ‘Guru’. One who performs upanayanam for disciple and teaches him Vedas with Kalpasutras and Upanishads is called ‘Acharya’. One who teaches at least a part of Veda or Vedangas like Vyakarana for a living is known as ‘Upadhyaya’. Acharya is higher in greatness than 10 upadhyayas; Father greater than 100 Acharyas; Mother greater than 1000 fathers.

2. Yagnavalkya - After doing samskaras like Garbhadhanam, one who teaches Veda is ‘Guru’. One who does only upanayanam and teaches Veda is ‘Acharya’. One who teaches some parts of Veda is ‘Upadhyaya’. One who guides in performance of yaga is called ‘Ritvik’. Out of these, the former is greater than the latter in order of preference; Mother is greater than all of them.

3. In performing upanayanam, father is the most important; if father is not there, elder brother, being equal to father, is important. If both of them are not there or are not capable, another can perform upanayanam. Brihaspati - Father should perform upanayanam for his son wearing danda etc. and teach him Veda and sastras like Manu’s.

4. Manu on elder brother being equal to father - As father takes care of children, elder brother should nourish hs younger brothers, who in turn must treat the elder brother like father.

5. Yama - Father, who has not learnt and taught Veda and does ignoble acts must not perform his son’s upanayanam.

6. Aapasthambha - One from whom the disciple learns dharmas is ‘Acharya’. The disciple should never act with malice against him.

7. Sankar - One who teaches Veda for a salary is called ‘Upadhyaya’.

8. Vishnu - Upadhyaya is one who teaches after taking the price.

9. manu - Ritvik is one who is chosen to do Aadanam, Pakayagnas and yagas like Agnishtomam.

10. Devala - Among men, upadhyaya, father, elder brother, king, mother’s brother, father - in - law, protector, mother’s father, father’s father, person of upper varna, and father’s brother are known as ‘Gurus’. Among women, mother, mother’s mother, wife of Guru, father’s sister, mother’s sister, mother - in - law, father’s mother, elder sister and foster - mother are ‘Gurus’. Thus Gurus are mentioned in two categories through mother and father. Of all Gurus, five persons are the worthiest: one who protects, the father, one who teaches vidya, elder brother and one who nourishes with food. Of these, the first three are more worthy. Mother is wothier than all of them.

11. In Smritiratnam - Father, mother, Acharya, wife of Acharya, elder brother, father’s father and father’s mother are the worthiest Gurus. One must treat as Guru the person from whom he learnt a Rik, half a Rik, one word or even one letter.

12. Vyasa - Mother’s father, mother’s brother, father’s brother, father - in - law, Acharya, elder brother, snataka (one who has graduated from Gurukulam) and Ritvik are worthy of respect like Guru. One must behave like with mother with mother’s sister, wife of mother’s brother, elder sister, foster - mother, father’s sister, father’s mother, wife of father’s brother and wife of Guru.

13. Manu - One must behave with respect like with mother with father’s sister, mother’s sister and elder sister. Mother is greater than these persons.

14. Vyasa on the cause of greatness of mother - Even if one serves his mother for many ears, who is capable of returning the debt of mother, who carries him for 10 months in her stomach, suffers from pains and troubles, becomes unconscious, delivers and then likes her children more than her own life.

15. Sankar - Unless one does the yaga ‘Soutramani’, the son does not get relieved of the debt to his father and mother till he is alive.

16. The Puranic passage, ‘Mother and father are Gurus of man by dharma; of them, father is greater, as seed is important; if father is not there, mother; if mother is also not there, elder brother’ is in respect of Mahaguru. Smriti in the same vein - One who produces son, performs his upanayanam, teaches him Veda and arranges his livelihood is called ‘Mahaguru’. He is the best among those deserving of worship.

17. Manu says that for brahmachari, Acharya is greater than mother and father - Biological father and Acharya are both fathers. Of the two, Acharya is the greater father. The birth called upanayanam performed by him is eternal in this and the next world for brahmana. Know that it is ordinary like for animals that after mother and father generate the child out of lust, the child grows limbs in the womb of mother and is born. The birth given through Gayatri as per rules by Acharya, who is well - versed in Vedas, is the true birth. That is the birth without old age and death.

18. Manu talks about the greatness of Acharya in a different manner - It should be known that one who helps in a large or small way by teaching sastras is also Guru. The implication of Manu’s words is that if one who has taught only meagre sastra is to be regarded as Guru, what about one who has taught in a large way.

19. Gautama - Acharya is the best of Gurus; some say it is the mother.

20. Vishnu says that even if the preceptor is young, he is greater - Whether the preceptor is younger or of equal age, the behaviour with him must be like with Guru.

21. Manu tells this with a story - The brahmana, who performs upanayanam and teaches dharma, even if younger in age, is like father to the disciple who is older. A young brahmana scholar, son of Angiras, taught vidya to his pitrus (father’s brother et al). Accepting them as disciples, he called them ‘children!’. The elders became angry and asked Devas about this matter. Devas said: What the boy called is but right. The ignorant man is child; the preceptor of mantra becomes father. Sages have also said thus - By being old, greying of hair, wealth and closeness in relation, one does not become great. One who has studied Veda along with Vedangas is great for us. Devas came to know that one is not old due to grey hair; though young, one who has studied Veda is old. Brahmana, though suffering himself, should not disrespect Acharya, father, mother and elder brother. Acharya is form of Paramatma. Father is form of Hiranyagarbha (Brahma). Mother is form of earth. Brother is form of one’s kshetra (place). Sons can never compensate even after many years for the suffering undergone by parents for the children. One should always do things pleasing for parents and Acharya. All penances fructify only if these three persons remain happy. The best penance is said to be serving these three persons. One should not observe another dharma without their permission. These three are the three worlds, three asramas, three Vedas and three Agnis. One who does not commit any sin to them will conquer all three worlds. With a shining body, he will shed lustre in swarga like Deva. This dharma is not only for brahmacharis, but also for grihasthas, as indicated by the word ‘grihi’.

22. Manu again - By devotion to mother, one wins this world; by devotion to father, the intermediate region; by service of Guru, Brahmaloka. To one who respects these three persons, all dharmas bear fruit. To one who does not respect these three persons, all dharma karyas are fruitless. As long as they are alive, no other dharmas should be performed (without their permission). One should keep serving them. He should be attentive to doing things that are liked by and good for them. By serving these three persons, all other dharmas are deemed to have been observed. This is the best dharma; others are inferior dharma.

23. Vyasa - Those, who work with malice against upadhyaya, father and mother in mind or in action, commit the sin of killing of foetus. There is no sinner worse than him.

24. Devala - As long as father and mother are alive, one should leave everything else and keep serving them. If parents become very pleased with the qualities of their son, the son will get (the fruit of) all dharmas.

25. There is no god equal to mother; no Guru equal to father; there is no way their help can be compensated.

26. Vyasa - Those, who leave or disrespect upadhyaya and Guru due to attachment or delusion, go to many narakas. One who disrespects elder brother, who is equal to father, goes to terrible naraka in the next world due to that sin.

27. Manu - One should not act against Acharya, Pravakta (teacher of meaning of Veda), father, mother, Guru, brahmana, cow and one in penance. Manu gives the exception - If Guru is arrogant, ignorant of dos and donts and follows evil path, he can be left.

28. Yama says that father, even if faulty, must not be left - Upadhyaya and disciple can be left if they have become impure through sin and performing yagas for unqualified persons; father must not be abandoned.

29. Manu - Though the son of Guru, who has studied Veda, is younger or of equal age or is disciple, he must be respected like Guru, if he is Ritvik in yaga or is seen directly.

30. Vyasa - Agni is Guru of dvijas. Brahmana is Guru of varnas. Husband is Guru of women. Guest is Guru of all.

31. Manu - Know that ten year old brahmana and hundred year old kshatriya are father and son respectively. Of them, brahmana is father. The kshatriya should treat him with respect.

73. Reasons for Respect

1. Yagnavalkya - One should properly adore those who possess vidyas like Sruti and Smriti, karmas like yaga, ripe age, relation and wealth. Even sudra over 90 years of age and possessing these characteristics in a large measure is worthy of respect.

2. Manu - Wealth, relation,age, karmas like yaga and vidya - these five are reasons for respect. Of these, the latter is superior to the former in that order. In the three varnas, one who has these five qualities, some of them in large and good measure, is fit for adoration. Sudra over 90 years old is also worthy of respect.

3. Gautama - Wealth, relation, jati, karma, vidya and age are reasons for respect. Of these, the latter is stronger than the former in that order. Knowledge of meaning of Veda is stronger than all else, as it is at the root of dharma.

74. Those fit to be given Way

1. Manu - One should give way to the person, mounted in a wheeled cart, chariot etc., aged over 90 years, diseased, carrying load, woman, grihastha brahmana (recently graduated from Gurukula), king (and exemplary person and one who is proceeding for marriage). If all of them join together on the road, out of them, the ‘snathaka’ (graduate) and king are worthy of respect. If these two come across, the king should give way to the graduate.

2. Yagnavalkya - Old man, carrier of load, king, ‘snathaka’, woman, diseased, one who is proceeding for marriage and one who is in cart should be given way. Of them, king deserves respect; ‘snathaka’ deserves greater respect than king.

3. Sankar - Boy, old man, mad man, intoxicated man, diseased, carrier of load, woman, king, ‘snathaka’ and sanyasi should be given way. Brahmana should be given way first. Some say that it is the king who should be given way first; that is not correct. Brahmana, who is Guru and great, is superior to king; hence it is brahmana, who should be given preference. If brahmanas come in a group, one should behave in accord with their vidya etc.

4. Vyasa - Brahmana, pregnant woman, king, blind man, old man, carrier of load, diseased and weak person must be given way.

5. Bodhayana - Brahmana, cow, king, blind man, old man, sufferer from carrying load, pregnant woman and weak man must be given way.

6. Gautama - One should give way to the person, mounted in a cart, chariot etc., old man, diseased, newly married woman, ‘snathaka’ (recently graduated from Gurukula) and king. King should give way to brahmana.

7. Aapasthambha - Coronated king must be given way, if he does not come across brahmana. If he comes across, brahmana should be given preference. Everyone should give way to carriers like chariot, elephant and cart, sufferer from carrying load, diseased and woman. Lower varnas should give way to higher varnas. All should give way to idiot, the ‘fallen’ man, mad man and intoxicated man in order to protect themselves; not for dharma.

8. The space to be left free in cross direction while giving way is also stated - 5 aratnis for chariot, 4 aratnis for elephant and 2 aratnis for small cows and humans. One aratni is one cubit less two inches (about 16 inches).

75. Abhivadanam (Reverential Salutation)

1. Yagnavalkya - (After Agnikaryam), one should do ‘Abhivadanam’ to elders uttering his name. Prostration done for getting blessings is called ‘Abhivadanam’.

2. Manu - Brahmana, prostrating to an elder, should mention his own name, ‘(Devadatta) namaahamasmi’ after ‘Abhivadaye’. Finally, he should say, ‘Bho:’. Calling by name the elder to whom prostration is offered being not proper, he should be called with ‘Bho:’. This sound has the power of all names,. ‘Abhivadaye (devadatta) naamahasmi Bho:’ is the salutation.

3. Gautama - If one meets a known person, he should give out his name, followed by ‘Ahamayam’ and do Abhivadanam. Haradatta explaining this - If one meets a person, who knows the rule of blessing, he should pronounce his name loudly, followed by ‘Aham’ and ‘Ayam’. Some say that instead of ‘Ayam’, the term ‘Asmi’ may be used. They use ‘Bho:’ at the end. The phrase they use is: ‘Abhivadaye Haradattohamayamasmi Bho:’; some say, ‘Haradattanamaham’; some others ‘Haradattasarma namahamasmi Bho:’, as per the statement, ‘the name of brahmana ends with ‘sarma’’. Know that the practice as per family tradition must be used.

4. Bharadvaja - Scratching cow on its back, prostrating to peepal tree, prostrating to all Gurus, one should do ‘Abhivadanam’ to brahmanas.

5. Manu - ‘Abhivadanam’ should be done first to one from whom worldly knowledge, Vedic knowledge or Brahmasastra knowledge is received.

6. Aapasthambha - In the morning, one should stand and do ‘Abhivadanam’ to Guru, saying ‘(Yagna) sarmaham Bho:’. ‘Abhivadanam’ should also be done to other elders in the village in forenoon before lunch. When one returns from outstation trip, he should do ‘Abhivadanam’. One who wishes for Swarga and long life should do ‘Abhivadanam’ to elders. Brahmana should keep his open right hand to his ear; kshatriya with hand to his chest; vysya with his hand to his waist; sudra with his hand to his foot. They should do ‘Abhivadanam’ with folded hands.

7. Vishnu - By doing ‘Abhivadanam’ with one hand, the entire dharma done with mind right from birth becomes fruitless.

8. This applies to dvijatis. Vishnu has himself said, ‘Blessings should be given to disciples; Prostrations to Guru should be done, touching his feet; Prostrations to scholars should be done, touching one’s ears; ‘Abhivadanam’ to idiots should be done with one hand’.

9. Aasvalayana - Touching the Guru’s left foot with left hand and right foot with right hand, touching one’s ears with hands, keeping right hand over left hand, uttering one’s name, touching the Guru from knee down to foot, prostration should be done at the feet.

10. This ‘Abhivadanam’ should be done standing opposite the person who is being offered sautations. Aapasthambha - When a person who is elder in age, vidya etc. arrives, the ‘pranas’ (life - breath) of the younger person try to go up and out. By getting up and doing ‘Abhivadanam’, the younger person regains the ‘pranas’.

11. Aapasthambha again - When many persons meet, if their ages are known, ‘Abhivadanam’ should be done first to the eldest of them; then, to the remaining people in the order of seniority of age. ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done to person in a higher or lower ground, if he is not Guru; ‘Abhivadanam’ should be done if he is Guru. ‘Abhivadanam’ should be done to a person, who is not Guru, on a higher ground by climbing up to the same level ground. By the same principle he should get down and do ‘Abhivadanam’ if the other person is on lower ground. ‘Abhivadanam’ to anybody should be done after getting up from one’s place. An impure person should not do ‘Abhivadanam’; ‘Abhivadanam’ should not also be done to an impure person. An impure person should not utter blessings. Women are regarded as equal in age to their husbands; hence ‘Abhivadanam’ should be done to elder brother’s wife et al. ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done wearing footwear or turban or carrying in hand samit (firewood for homa), kusa (darbha) etc.

12. Manu - One should not sit on bed, seat etc. used by Guru et al. If Guru et al arrive while one is on bed, seat etc., he should stand up and do ‘Abhivadanam’.

13. To one who is in the habit of doing ‘Abhivadanam’ to elders always and serving them, lifespan, wisdom, fame and strength swell.

14. Bodhayana - ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done by as well as to one who is sitting, lying down or unclean. If possible, one should not be unclean even for a short time. ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done by as well as to one who carries Samit, water - pot, flower and food. A young man should not do ‘Abhivadanam’ from close quarters to the young wives of Guru, elder brother, father’s brother et al.

15. Sankar - ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done with water - pot, flower and ghee in hand, while doing bhikshacharanam, in unclean condition, doing Devakaryam or Pitrukaryam and lying down.

16. Aapasthambha - ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done with Samit, flower, kusa, ghee, water, clay, food and rice in hand and also to one doing japa and homa.

17. Manu - The wives of Gurus of same varna are worthy of reverence like Guru. If they are of different varna, they are to be revered only by standing up and doing ‘Abhivadanam’. Disciple, knowing good and bad and over 20 years of age, should not do ‘Abhivadanam’ to young wife of Guru by touching her feet.

18. In Smrityarthasara - ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done to woman in periods, woman who has delivered, woman who murdered her husband, woman who destroyed her embryo, heretic, ‘fallen’, one who has lost jati, great sinner, atheist, gambler, thief, ungrateful person, intoxicated, inattentive, mad, one who is walking, unclean person, one who vomits, one who yawns, one who is washing teeth, one who is applying oil, one who is bathing, one who is doing japa or yaga or is in a crowd and one who carries Samit, flower, kusa, Agni, water - pot, offering to God or food got in alms. If he does ‘Abhivadanam’ to such a person, brahmana gets purified by observing fast for one day. If he does ‘Abhivadanam’ to one in darkness, in bed, wearing footwear, unclean and engaged in japa, pooja and homa, he should observe fast for three days. ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done to these six people - one at a distance, in water, one who is walking, arrogant due to money, diseased and intoxicated. If brahmana does ‘Abhivadanam’ to kshatriya and vaisya, fasting for one day is prescribed; to sudra, fasting for three days; to washerman, chandala, observance of chandrayana.

19. Saatatapa - Kshatriyas et al interested in wealth should do ‘Abhivadanam’ to brahmana with respect, bending his head down and prostrating in full. Even if kshatriya et al possess knowledge, karmas, qualities, sastric observance etc., brahmana should not do ‘Abhivadanam’ to them. If brahmana does ‘Abhivadanam’ to kshatriya or vysya, what is the prayaschitta for him? He gets purified by prostrating to eight or ten brahmanas. If brahmana salutes sudra, he gets purified by taking bath with clothes on and doing ‘Abhivadanam’ to a hundred brahmanas. He should worship Vishnu or Siva (the three - eyed God). By doing ‘Abhivadanam’ to an excellent brahmana also, he becomes purified.

20. Vishnu - Prostration can be offered to brahmanas in all assemblies, yagas and in residences of kings; but no ‘Abhivadanam’. By having darshan of a group of brahmanas, masses of sins get destroyed; by prostrating, auspiciousness is obtained; by doing pooja, undecaying state is attained.

21. In Smritiratnavali - One who is 81 years and 4 months of age is worthy of prostration; worthier of worship than Vishnu. This applies to men of same varna. Reason: Manu - ‘Giving daughter in marriage, prostrating and invoking in sraadham, one, whose country and place and family including three earler generations are not known, should not be done’.

22. In Chandrika - Even an elder should do ‘Abhivadanam’ to a younger person during Sandhya time; except for son, disciple, daughter’s son, son - in - law.

23. In Smritibhaskaram - One can prostrate to all persons of same jati at all times; the persons to whom prostration is offered should bless; one of equal age should reciprocate by prostrating.

24. Vrudhamanu - Whenever ‘Abhivadanam’ is done, the feet should be touched. For brahmanas, at least folding of hands is required; it is considered as prostration.

25. In Smrityarthasaram - It is not a must that feet should be touched in ‘Abhivadanam’; it is optional. In ‘Abhivadanam’ and prostration, return salutation is required. The persons to whom prostration is offered should bless; one of equal age should reciprocate by prostrating. Elder and chaste women are fit for prostration. Prostration should be offered to idol of God and Tridandi Yati (sanyasi with three staffs), if one comes across. If not, one gets purified with one day’s fast.

26. In Smritiratnam - ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done to one holding ‘sruk’ (spoon used in yaga), unknown person, weak person, enemy, diseased, one in yoga, one in tapas and younger person.

27. Manu - One of those who live in the same town and not having qualities like vidya, even if elder by 10 years, will be considered as friend. If he is older, he will be considered as ‘Jyeshtha’ (elder). If a person has vidya like music and is older by 5 years, he is friend. Among srotriyas (brahmanas well versed in Vedas), one who is older by three years is friend. Brother et al, older by a few years, are friends. If older, ‘Abhivadanam’ can be done.

28. Aapasthambha - When one comes across brahmana who is younger and is friend, he should enquire about his well being; if kshatriya, enquire about health; if vysya, absence of loss; if sudra, health. If one comes across srotriya on the way and a woman in a fearful forest etc., he should not proceed without talking to them. The woman should be asked, ‘Sister, what should I do for you; do not fear’ respectfully like addressed to mother or sister.

29. Manu - When one comes across brahmana who is younger or of equal age, he should enquire about his well being; if kshatriya, enquire about health; if vysya, happiness; if sudra, health. Another’s wife and unrelated woman should be addressed as ‘Bhavati’ (respectful ‘you’), ‘Subhage’ (blessed woman) or ‘Bhagini (sister).

30. Yama - Brahmana should say ‘svasti’; kshatriya, ‘Ayushman’ (long life); vysya, ‘vardhatam’ (may grow); sudra, ‘svagatham’ (welcome).

31. Bhavishyatpurana also says - It is proper that brahmana should say ‘svasti’ to men of all varnas. Yama explains the meaning of the term ‘svasti’ - That which is pleasure free from disease and distress in all the three worlds and in which all desires reside is called ‘svasti’.

32. Vyasa - The armour may perhaps be destroyed by arrow or javelin; the blessing of brahmana cannot be destroyed even by many thunderbolts.

33. Manu - When mother’s brother, father’s brother, father - in - law, Ritvik, Gurus come, even if they are younger, one should stand up and announce ‘I am (Devadatta)’; ‘Abhivadanam’ should not be done.

34. In Smritiratnam in the same vein - If Ritvik, father’s brother, father - in - law and mother’s brother are younger, one should stand up and talk first.

35. Bodhayana also lays down the same.

36. Gautama also lays down the same and says, ‘’Abhivadanam’ should not be done’.

37. When Vasishtha and Aapasthambha lay down ‘Abhivadet’, it has been explained in Smritichandrika that it only means that one should stand up opposite and talk. Haradatta explains that when younger Ritvik et al salute, the elder person should stand up and return the salutation; he should not just sit as he likes as with others.

38. Gautama on the importance of ‘Abhivadanam’ to Guru et al - ‘Abhivadanam’ should be done to Guru in the morning. When one goes to father et al, he should prostrate every day touching their feet. If returning from outstation, one should go to their place and prostrate. To whom - Mother, father, their relatives, elder brothers, upadhyaya et al who teach vidya, their Acharyas. If all of them are met at the same place, first prostration is to thue best of them.

39. Aapasthambha - When one goes after sunrise to the Acharya for Vedic study, he should do ‘upasangrahanam’ (respectful salutation by touching feet); at other times he should do ‘Abhivadanam’. One who has completed ‘Samavarthanam’ (completion of Gurukula course) should also do ‘upasangrahanam’ to all his Gurus every day. If one returns from outstation also, he should do ‘upasangrahanam’ to them. When Acharya and Pracharya (Acharya’s Acharya) are together, one should do ‘upasangrahanam’ to Pracharya first and then to Acharya; Acharya should stop him at that time.

40. Manu - If Acharya’s Acharya comes, one should behave with him in the same way as with Guru. When one is in Guru’s home, he should not prostrate to mother and father, if they come there, without Guru’s permission.

41. Aapasthambha - One should behave in the same way as with Guru with the person, who, though not the Acharya, is respected for vidya and achara.

42. Aapasthambha on the form of ‘upasangrahanam’ - With one’s right hand, one should catch the right foot of the Acharya on the top as well as the palm along with ankle (some say, ‘with the toe - finger’). This is called ‘upasangrahanam’. Some say that with both hands, one should catch both feet.

43. Manu on this matter - One should catch the feet of Guru with opposite hands; left foot with left hand and right foot with right hand.

44. Bodhayana - Touching one’s ears and then touching from below the knees upto feet of Acharya is called ‘upasangrahanam’.

45. This should be done to the wives of Gurus also. Manu also - The wives of Gurus of same varna are worthy of adoration as Guru. Mother’s sister, wife of mother’s brother, mother - in - law and father’s sister are worthy of adoration as the wife of Guru; they are equal to the wife of Guru. One should prostrate with ‘upasangrahanam’ every day to brother’s wife of same varna. ‘Upasangrahanam’ should be done to the wives of other relatives on one’s return from outstation. No ‘upasangrahanam’ should be done to the wife of Guru, if young.

46. In Smrityarthasaram - Announcing one’s gotra and name and saying ‘Aham bho abhivadaye’, touching one’s ears, catching the right foot of Guru with right hand and his left foot with left hand and bending down one’s head is ‘upasangrahanam’. The term ‘Guru’ here includes mother, one who brought up with breast milk, father, father’s father et al, provider of food, protector from fear, Acharya, one who performed upanayanam, teacher of mantravidya and their wives. ‘Upasangrahanam’ should be done to them. One who has completed Samavarthanam should behave as with Guru with the person who teaches Veda, though he may be younger or of same age.