Smriti Mukta Phalam

38. Explanation of Castes like Kunda and Golaka

1. Manu - One who is born to a brahmana woman with brahmana paramour is called ‘Kunda’; born to brahmana widow is ‘Golaka’. These two are unfit for sraadham. One who is born to a kshatriya woman with kshatriya paramour is called ‘Bhoja’. He has no coronation. He can use the title of king and look after citizens. One who is born to a vysya woman with vysya paramour is called ‘Manikara’. His living is on making apertures in pearls, rectifying conches and dyeing. One who is born to a sudra woman with sudra paramour is called ‘Manavaka’. His living is on feeding horses with grass.

39. Explanation of Pratilomajati

1. Yagnavalkya - One who is born of brahmana woman to kshatriya man is called ‘Suta’; to vysya man is ‘Vaidehaka’; to sudra man is ‘Chandala’. This chandala is unfit for any dharma. One who is born of kshatriya woman to vysya man is called ‘Magadha’; to sudra man is ‘Kshatta’. One who is born of vysya woman to sudra man is called ‘Ayogava’.

2. Manu - One who is born of kshatriya man to brahmana woman is ‘Suta’; he is the best of ‘Pratiloma’ jatis. His occupations are worship of Vishnu, knowing those dharmas, charioteering, selling of mats and achara like brahmana. One who is born of vysya man to kshatriya woman is ‘Magadha’. His occupations are praising kings and playing on instruments like veena etc. If he is born of adultery, he is called ‘Pulinda’. His occupations are torturing wild vicious animals and selling oil, flakes as cattle food and salt. Even sudras should not eat his food; nobody shoud touch him. If he enters village etc. during afternoon, he should be punished. One who is born of vysya man to kshatriya woman is ‘Magadha’; to brahmana woman, ‘Vaideha’. Those who are born of sudra man to vysya, kshatriya and brahmana women are called respectively ‘Ayogava’, ‘Kshatta’ and ‘Chandala’. They are of ‘sankara’ (mixed) jatis. Just as sudra man produces outcaste (‘chandala’) with brahmana woman, the outcaste man produces with the women of four varnas further inferior outcaste persons. Those who are born of sudra man to vysya, kshatriya and brahmana women are called respectively ‘Ayogava’, ‘Kshatta’ and ‘Chandala’. They are ‘Apasadas’. One who is born of vysya man to kshatriya woman is ‘Magadha’; to brahmana woman, ‘Vaideha’; one who is born of kshatriya man to brahmana woman is ‘Suta’. They are also Apasadas. One who is born of Nishada man to sudra woman is called ‘Pulkasa’. One who is born of kshatta man to ugra woman is called ‘Svapaka’. Chandala and svapaka live outside the village. They should live in manners identifiable by their means of living and actions; they should live in large trees, cremation grounds, hills and forests. Their clothing is the clothing of corpses; food in broken pots; ornaments of iron. They should always be on the move. One who wishes to be in dharma should not join them. Even if anarya, who is outcaste, unknown and born to sinners, shows himself outwardly as arya, one should surmise through his actions that he is evil. Severity, speaking harshly, troubling others and observing no achara indicate that he is born in ‘sankara’ (mixed) jati. One who is born of people of evil castes behaves like his father, mother or both; he will not leave that behaviour. Everyone should do actions prescribed for his jati; one who does not do so becomes ‘fallen’ from his jati.

3. Yagnavalkya - Pratilomajas are called bad and Anulomajas as good.

4. As Anuloma and Pratiloma jatis are innumerable, everything cannot be communicated by writing here.

40. Rise and Fall of Anuloma and Pratiloma Jatis

1. Yagnavalkya - The rise of jati can be found in seven, six or five generations. If professions are changed, the equality of jatis is also similar. The bad and good nature of Pratilomajas and Anulomajas is also similar. Meaning - Jatis are actually the jatis of Moo Moordhavasiktas.rdhavasiktas. They should be known to attain the jatis of brahmana etc. in seventh, fifth or sixth generation. This is the practical arrangement. Daughter who is born of a brahmana man to sudra woman is ‘Nishadi’. She marries a brahmana and begets a daughter. That girl also does the same. The sixth (generation) daughter thus begets a son, who becomes a brahmana. Daughter who is born of a brahmana man to vysya woman is ‘Ambashti’. If she follows the track mentioned above, the fifth daughter begets a son, who becomes a brahmana. In the same manner Ugra and Mahishya women marry kshatriya men and beget kshatriya son in sixth and fifth generation respectively. In the same manner Karani woman marries vysya man and begets vysya son in fifth generation. Similarly jatis like brahmana attain to lower caste by marrying lower castes like kshatriya. By changing profession for the sake of livelihood first and by not abandoning it later after the adversity is over, in seven, six or five generations, the equality with that respective lower caste happens. Explanation - Brahmana adopts the occupation of sudra continuously and begets a son. The son also does the same. This continues and in the seventh generation he begets a sudra only. In the same way the brahmana who lives on vysya occupation begets vysya in the sixth generation and the brahmana who lives on kshatriya occupation begets kshatriya in the fifth generation. This rule applies to Pratilomajas also. Pratilomajas are: those who are born of Moordhavasikta women with kshatriya, vysya and sudra men; those who are born of Ambashta women with vysya and sudra men; those who are born of Nishadi woman with sudra man. Anulomajas are: those who are born of Moordhavasikta, Ambashta and Nishadi women with brahmana man; those who are born of Mahishya and Ugra women with brahmana and kshatriya men; those who are born of Karani women with brahmana, kshatriya and vysya men. As before,It is to be known that Pratilomajas are bad and Anulomajas are good.

2. Manu - If sons born of the three varna men with women of same varna have not been initiated into upanayanam, they have not received savitri initiation and are called ‘vratyas’.

3. Bodhayana - If sons born of the three varna men with women of same varna have not been initiated into upanayanam, they have not received savitri initiation and great men call them ‘vratyas’.

41. Forty Samskaras

1. Manu - The three varnas should perform samskaras (purificatory ceremonies) of body like Garbhadhanam in order that purification is possible in this and next worlds through meritotrious karmas as given in Veda.

2. Yagnavalkya - There are four varnas - brahmana, kshatriya, vaisya and sudra. Of these, the first three varnas are called ‘Dvijas’. Kriyas from Garbhadhanam till Aparakriya with mantras are prescribed only for them.

3. Angiras - Just as a painting is completed by doing properly all the different parts, brahmanaism attains fullness with samskaras performed as per rules.

4. Manu - For dvijas, the sin arising out of seed and stay in uterus is removed by homas performed during stay in uterus and subsequent Jatakarma, Chowla and Upanayanam.

5. Yagnavalkya - By doing samskaras thus, the sin from seed and stay in uterus is destroyed.

6. Gautama mentions those forty samskaras - Garbhadhanam, Pumsavanam, Seemantonnayanam, Jatakarma, Namakaranam, Annaprasanam, Chowlam, Upanayanam, Four Vedavratas, Samavarthanam, Vivaham, Five Mahayagnas, Seven Pakayagnasamsthas - Ashtaka, Parvanam, Sraadham, Sravani, Aagrahayani, Chaitri and Aasvayuji, Seven Haviryagnasamsthas - Aadanam, Agnihotram, Darsa Purnamasas, Aagrayanam, Chaturmasyas, Nirudhapasubandham and Soutramani, Seven Somasamsthas - Agnishtomam, Atyagnishtomam, Uktyam, Shodasi, Vajapeyam, Atiratram and Abdoryamam. Then eight Atmagunas are mentioned - Compassion to all living beings, forbearance, absence of jealousy, purity, absence of exertion, auspiciousness, freedom from miserliness and lack of desire. Here a karma called ‘Upanishkramanam’ has been mentioned by Manu. He says, ‘Upanishkramanam should be performed in fourth month’. That has not been supported here. As ‘forty’ is mentioned, samskaras are forty only. Hence the rest of Sroutha Smartha karmas are not part of these forty samskaras.

7. Brihaspati mentions the characteristics of compassion etc. - Compassion (daya) is protecting from danger whosoever - other, relative, friend, enemy. Forbearance (kshanti) is absence of anger and not troubling others, even when one is subjected by them to bodily or mental harm. Absence of jealousy (anasuya) is not hating someone when he attains dharma, wealth, desire or moksha (liberation). Purity (soucha) is avoidance of prohibited eatables, joining those who are free from faults and remaining in one’s own dharma. Absence of exertion (anaayasa) is avoiding action which would result in pain to oneself even if the action is as per dharma. Auspiciousness (mangalam) is doing the best deeds and avoiding despicable deeds. Freedom from miserliness (akaarpanyam) is: even when what one has is meagre, giving others happily at least a little bit of that. Lack of desire (aspruha) is being satisfied with wealth one has earned or got and not desiring for others’ belongings.

8. Sankar says that one with these forty samskaras and eight atmagunas attains Brahmasayujya (merging with Brahma) - Brahmana purified by Purvasamskaras and Uttarasamskaras and with eight gunas attains to Brahmaloka from where there is no return. Garbhadhanam etc. are Purvasamskaras; Ashtaka etc. are Uttarasamskaras.

9. Haaritha in the same vein - Samskaras are of two types - Brahmam and Daivam; From Garbhadhanam till Samavarthanam is Brahmam; Pakayagnas, Haviryagnas and Somasamsthas are Daivam. One who has received Brahma samskaras attains to equality and merger with Rishis. One who has received Daiva samskaras attains to equality, living in the same realm and merger with Devas.

10. Gautama says about one without Atnmagunas - Even purified with forty samskaras, the one without the eight Atmagunas does not attain to merger and living in the same realm as Brahma. Hence it must be understood that only the one who has forty samskaras and eight Atmagunas gets the fruit of attaining to merger with Brahma.

11. Samskaras from Garbhadhanam till Upanayanam are a must for all dvijas. Bath etc. are not necessary. If not, there will be difference with passage like “One can take up the asrama of interest; from brahmacharya one can go to sanyasarama’.

42. Discussion of Garbhadhanam

1. Manu - Gruhastha should unite with woman in the Rtukala (period favourable for conception); he should always unite with his woman only. For his woman’s pleasure, he can unite with her in period unfavourable for conception and on days other than Parva. For women, the period favourable for conception is sixteen days from the start of menstruation. In that period, the first four days are prohibited. Eleventh and thirteenth days are condemnable. The rest ten days favourable for conception are good. Union in even days will beget male child and that in odd days, female child. Hence one who desires for son should unite with woman on even days in the period favourable for conception. Even during the favourable period, he should observe brahmacharya on amavasya, ashtami, purnima and chaturdasi days.

2. Brihaspati - Man should unite with woman during Rtukala definitely; in the rest of time, he can unite on days other than Parva, as it is pleasing to women.

3. Yagnavalkya - Man should remember the boon given by Indra to women, be ‘yathakami’,i.e. uniting in times when they wish and be attached only to his wife; as it is essential to protect women. Yathakami is one who unites without transgressing wife’s desire. About Indra’s boon, in Taittiriyam - ‘Indra reached the group of women and asked them to receive one - third of his sin of killing of brahmana. The women said, ‘We will conceive after menstruation and enjoy union till time of delivery’. Hence women conceive after menstruation and enjoy union till time of delivery, as they asked for such a boon. Women accepted one - third of the sin of killing of brahmana. It became ‘malavatvasah’ (menses). The term ‘vasah’ in the word ‘malavatvasah’ conveys that from the time of contact of menstrual blood on the dress, impurity has set in.

4. Yagnavalkya - For women, sixteen nights from the time of noticing menses is called ‘Rtu’. Out of those, man should unite on even days. One who follows this rule becomes brahmachari himself. He should avoid Parva nights and the first four nights, like a brahmachari only. The word ‘nisha’ means that union is not permitted during day. Hence Sankha and Likhita say - Uniting with woman is prohibited during menses period and during daytime. If done, children of less virility and less lifespan will be born.’ As the plural term ‘yugmasu’ is used, one should unite in all permissible even nights in Rtukala. One who unites thus is brahmachari only. Hence Vignaneswara says that where brahmacharya is prescribed, man of this discipline does not suffer the deficiency of losing brahmacharya. Sruti on avoiding Parva and the first four nights - ‘One should not unite with woman on amavasya and purnima days; if he does, he loses virility’; ‘One should not talk or sit with woman in menses’; ‘One born in union during menses period is called ‘Abhisasta’.’

5. Aapasthambha says that among even days, the latter is better than the former - ‘Great men say that in Rtukala, in the period from 4th night upto 16th night, among even nights, the latter is preferable to the former.’ Here union in 4th night is permitted if menses flow has stopped. Katyayana says with this in mind - ‘Woman in menses becomes pure by bath on fourth day’. Haaritha - ‘After bath on fourth day, on even nights’. Gobila in the same vein - ‘When the woman in menses becomes free from the menstrual flow, that is the time fit for union.’

6. Parasara - Woman in menses becomes pure on the fourth day after bath. Only after stoppage of menstrual flow, she can do karmas for Devas and Pitrus. As long as there is menstrual flow, she is impure. Only after its stoppage, she becomes fit for union and work at home. She is known as chandali on first day, killer of brahmana on second day and washerwoman (rajaki) on third day. The sin that would accrue by uniting with chandali et al will attach by union with woman in menses.

7. Sruti in the same vein - In the three days one should observe vrata (vow). The fourth night is recommended for avoidance because of opinion that menstrual flow might persist or son would be born who would be of short life and poor. Vyasa in the same manner - By union in the fourth night, son would be born who would be of short life and poor; in 5th night, daughter who would beget son; in 6th, son of medium quality; in 7th, daughter who would be barren; in 8th, wealthy son; in 9th, beautiful daughter; in 10th, good son; in 11th, sinful daughter; in 12th, very good son; in 13th, daughter who would mix castes; in 14th, son who would be knower of dharmas, grateful, Atmagnani, of firm resolve and king of earth by good qualities; in 15th, daughter who would be queen, enjoy many pleasures, beget many sons and be chaste; in 16th, son who would have vidya, beauty, truth and victory over sense organs and be refuge for all beings.

8. Yagnavalkya - Thus, one, who unites once in one night with woman who has thinned due to rules of woman in menses, on night excluding stars of Makha and Mulam and having strength of Chandra, will beget male child of handsome marks.

9. Brihaspati - If the blood (sonitha) of woman is more, female child would be born; if the semen (sukla) of man is more, male child would be born. Hence, for increase of semen, man should eat food,0000 which would improve virility and is soft; woman should be made to eat less food; then he will beget male issue.

10. Manu - If the semen of man is more, male child would be born; if the blood of woman is more, female child would be born; if both are equal, eunuch, male and female would be born; If semen is not virile and is less, pregnancy will not result. If male semen is divided into two, embryo gets separated in two.

11. Yama - During union, if man deposits his semen in two ways, embryo becomes two.

12. In Sayaniyam - Auspicious days for impregnation: In sukla and Krishna pakshas, tithis other than shashti, ashtami, panchadasi, chaturthi and chaturdasi; days of Chandra, Guru, Sukra and Budha. Recommended stars: Sravanam, Rohini, Hastam, Anusham, Swati, Revati, Mulam, Uthirams and Sathabhishak (Sadayam). Stars of medium result: Pushyam, Sravishta (Avittam), Mrigasirsham, Asvini, Chitra and Punarvasu. The rest are useless. If Rushabha, Mithuna, Kataka, Simha, Kanya, Tula, Kumbha, Dhanus and Meenam have purity in Ashtama and support of good Grahas, they are auspicious.

13. Devala on union when many wives are present - When Rtukala of many women is at the same time, one should unite in order of varnas starting from brahmana; or, unite first with woman having no son; or, at least in order of marriage.

14. Parasara on sin in not uniting in Rtukala - Man who does not unite with wife after bath after menstruation will get the blemish of killing embryo.

15. Bodhayana - Pitrus live in the semen of man for the month when he does not unite with wife who has bathed after menstruation and is near at hand. There is no fault if wife is not nearby or if man is incapable. Devala in the same vein - A healthy man, who does not unite with wife who has bathed after menstruation, gets the blemish of killing embryo. Man, who does not unite for three years with wife in periods favourable for conception, gets the blemish of killing foetus. One who does not unite during Rtukala, unites during period other than Rtukala and discharges semen in place other than wife’s vagina are of equal sin. Forbidding during period other than Rtukala is in the event of wife not being desirous. If not, it will contravene the word ‘yathakami’. Gautama in the same manner - Union is right during Rtukala and also in period other than forbidden.

16. Aapasthambha - Sruti also says: Enjoying pleasures not opposed to dharma, one should protect women – ‘Protect your lineage attentively; the seeds of others should not be laid in your wives.’

17. Mahabharata - Agnihotram is the strength of Vedas; Danam and enjoyment are the strength of wealth; Sexual enjoyment and son are the strength of wife; Good conduct and fame are the strength of sastram.

18. Vyasa - There is no fault if man living abroad unites with wife anytime in Rtukala, other period, day or night.

19. Vyasa again - For man who is diseased, in prison and abroad and for one who does not unite during Parva, there is no fault of transcending Rtukala.

20. Bodhayana - Prajapati says that there is no prayaschitta for one who discharges semen in the face of wife.

21. Vyasa - One should not unite even in mind with other men’s wives. He should unite only with wife during Rtukala, thinking that adultery is frightful in this world and the next. This rule of uniting during Rtukala is for man who has no son.

22. In Kurmapurana in the same vein - Till son is born, man should unite during Rtukala.

23. Vasishtha also - If one looks at the face of son, born and living, he is rid of Pitru debt; he gets the state of Deva. Brahmana, even at birth, has three debts. By brahmacharya, he repays the debt of Rishis; by yagnas, the debt of Devas; by getting son, the debt of Pitrus. Man becomes complete by getting son. One without son is not praised in this world and the next. His birth is useless; his lineage is destroyed. One with son attains undecaying worlds. For one without son, there is no world. Passages in Sruti and Smriti like ‘O man! You alone are born as son. That itself is immortality for you’ are true with even one son.

24. Manu in the same vein - When the eldest son is born, man becomes ‘Putravan’ (one who has son). He becomes free from debt to Pitrus. Hence that son alone is eligible for all wealth. Passages like ‘Give ten sons to her. One should desire for many sons, as one at least will go to Gaya’ are in praise of many sons. Hence man with one son is not at fault if he transgresses Rtukala with desire for many sons.

25. Hence Manu - ‘The first son, who is the cause of repaying the debt to Pitrus and for getting the state of Deva, is ‘Dharmaja’ (born of dharma); the other sons are called ‘Kamaja’ (born of desire).’

26. In Sayaniyam - Calculating from the star in which conception takes place, delivery will occur in 9th, 10th or 12th star. Birth will take place in 12th star from the star of Garbhadhanam (impregnation). Hence one should unite with knowledge of auspicious star. Decorating himself with things liked by woman and with firm resolve, one should lie down in bed near his wife for two yamams (six hours).

27. In Apararka - One with diksha (ceremonial vow) should not sleep in place where women sleep. One who has performed sraadha should not unite with woman.

28. Vyasa - One who wishes for long life should not unite with woman, who has not taken bath, is diseased, in periods or pregnant. He should not unite with woman, who is unwilling, angry, despicable, diseased, unfavourable, desirous of other man, not desirous of him, belonging to other, hungry or has overeaten. He should also be free from these qualities. After bath, wearing garland and sandalpaste, one should unite happily with woman.

29. Sandilya - One should not unite with wife who is pregnant, dirty, grey - haired, in periods or diseased. A hungry man should not unite. There should be no discharge of semen in other places (other than wife’s vagina). One should sleep with wife, who has bathed, is wearing good dress and ornaments, is of pure mind and free from disease; he should also be in the same condition. To those who indulge in too much of intercourse, loss of virility, increase of disease, poverty (Alakshmi), hindrance to good actions and loss of beauty, long life and fame will happen.

30. Samvartha - For one who unites with woman in periods or eight months pregnant, prayaschitta (expiation) is ‘Atikruchram’.

31. Bharadvaja - If one unites with woman in period other than Rtukala, he should wear his Upaveeta in his back in ‘Niveeti’ (hanging like a garland) position.

32. Manu - One should unite with woman in Rtukala with upaveeta in normal position and at other times, with upaveeta in Niveeti position. Man should be without clothing and woman with clothing; if both are unclothed, they will attract sin. If one unites in Rtukala, he should take bath; at other times he should do purification like after urination.

33. Gautama - If one unites with woman, he should do purification; it should not be delayed.

34. Aapasthambha - One should take bath. Or he should wash off all matter, do achamanam and sprinkle water on limbs. After union, he should not sleep with her the whole night.

35. Gautama - One should unite with clothing kept separately for the purpose of union. Upto union, he can sleep with his wife; after union, he should sleep separately.

36. In Kaladarsam - The period from 4th day after noticing menstrual blood until 16th day is called Rtukala. Even days will generate male child and odd days female. In these two categories, the latter day is better than the former day. One should avoid Moolam, Makham and five Parvas. In both pakshas, the five days of chaturdasi, ashtami, darsam (amavasya), purnima and sankranti are called Parva.

37. In Kurmapurana - Union with woman is not permitted on days of shashti, ashtami, amavasya, purnima, dvadasi, chaturdasi and janmatrayam.

43. Pumsavanam

1. Aapasthambha - As soon as pregnancy comes to light, Pumsuvanam should be performed. Pumsuvanam is the name of the karma; by doing this, the woman begets son. This is eulogy, as begetting son is uncertain. The ‘u’ after ‘s’ is ‘chandasam’ (Vedic usage). Aasvalayana read it as ‘A’ only. The meaning is that after pregnancy is confirmed, Pumsavanam should be performed in third or fourth month in Pushya star.

2. In Kaladarsam - Pumsavanam should be performed in 3rd or 4th month. It should be done after pregnancy has come to light; it is well known that pregnancy will come to light only at that time.

3. Yagnavalkya - Garbhadhanam in Rtukala and Pumsavanam before the movement of foetus in uterus should be done.

4. But Brihaspati says: after the movement of the foetus in uterus - Garbhadhanam in Rtukala and Pumsavanam after the movement of foetus in uterus should be done.

5. Paijavapa - In 2nd or 3rd month before movement of foetus in uterus.

6. Bhaskara - In 2nd or 3rd month on day of male star in association with Chandra.

7. In Ratnakosa, male stars have been listed - Hastam, Mulam, Sravanam, Punarvasu, Mrigasirsham, and Pushyam are male stars.

8. Jatukarnya - Pumsavanam should be done in 2nd or 3rd month, or after pregnancy is confirmed, or along with Seemantham.

9. In Dharmodyotam - Pumsavanam should be done in 3rd month and Seemanthonnayanam in 6th or 7th month. If Pumsavanam is not done before, it should be done first, followed by Seemanthonnayanam. Some say that as it is a basic samskara, it is samskara for all pregnancies; hence Pumsavanam is required only in the first pregnancy. Others say that Aapasthambha says that the woman will beget son; his opinion applies to every pregnancy; this samskara is required in every pregnancy for begetting son.

44. Seemanthonnayanam

1. Paijavapa - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 4th or 5th month.

2. Yagnavalkya - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 6th or 8th month and Jatakarma after childbirth.

3. Lokakshi - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 3rd month.

4. In Kaladarsam - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 4th, 6th or 8th month.

5. Sankar - Seemanthonnayanam may be performed after movement of foetus or upto time of delivery. Note that in case of obstacle in prime time, it can be done later upto time of delivery.

6. Kasyapa - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 6th, 7th, 8th or 9th month or at least before delivery.

7. As this is a woman’s samskara, it should be done only once. It need not be done in every pregnancy. Aapasthambha in the same vein - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in first pregnancy in 4th month.

8. In Sankhyayana Grihyam - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in first pregnancy in 7th month.

9. Haaritha - For dvija women, who have undergone Seemantha samskara once, whatever be the number of pregnancies, all of them are deemed to have undergone the samskara.

10. Devala - Woman, who has undergone the samskara once, remains with the samskara in all pregnancies.

11. Some do it for every pregnancy, considering that it is a samskara of the foetus. Vishnu in the same vein - Seemantham is said to be woman’s samskara. Some consider it as samskara of the foetus and do it in every pregnancy. Respective Grihyas should be referred for details in this regard.

12. Satyavrata on woman who has delivered without Seemantham - In case woman without Seemantham has delivered, Seemantham should be done to her and the baby.

13. Gargya - In case woman has delivered before Seemantham, the baby should be kept in a box and Seemantham should be performed. If the pregnant woman’s husband has died or gone abroad, her brother - in - law, Guru or Sapinda (husband’s paternal relative) may do the Seemantham.

45. Jatakarma

1. Vishnu - Once the child is born, the father should take bath and perform Jatakarma as stipulated in his Grihya.

2. Samvartha - Once the child is born, bath with clothes as worn is stipulated for the father.

3. Jabali - Naimittika (required by occasion) and kamya (desire - prompted) baths should be had in cold water.

4. Vasishtha - In case of birth of child, ‘Avabhruta’ (ablution at close of yaga), Surya sankramanam and eclipse occurring at night, one can have bath at night; otherwise not.

5. Vyasa - Bath and danam should not be done at night; if they are required by occasion, they can be done at night. Danam given during eclipse, marriage, sankramanam, pilgrimage, harti and delivery is called naimittikam (required by occasion). There is no fault in doing it at night. Danam given on birth of child and in pilgrimage, even at night, is of inexhaustible merit.

6. Sankhyayani on the speciality of bath at night - One should take bath at night in the presence of Agni with water brought during day and kept with gold.

7. Manu - As soon as child is born, before cutting of umbilical cord, Jatakarma is stipulated. The baby should be fed at that time gold, honey and ghee with mantra.

8. Paijavapa - Jatakarma should be done immediately on birth of the child. If it cannot be done for reason beyond control, it should be done after the period of pollution is over. Pollution is not there before cutting of umbilical cord; pollution occurs after cutting of umbilical cord.

9. Vyasa - At the time of birth of child, Naandi sraadham should be performed before the umbilical cord is cut. If material is not available at that time, it should be done after the period of pollution.

10. This sraadham should be done as ‘Aama’ foodgrains) or ‘Hiranya’ (gold). Prachetas - Woman, sudra, one who cooks his own food and one who wishes to do Jatakarma should do Aama sraadham as per Paarvana rules.

11. In Jatakarma sraadham, cooked food is forbidden. In Adipurana - In Jatakarma sraadham, cooked food should not be served even in case of brahmanas. Those who eat it become pure by chandrayana (kind of prayaschitta).

12. Bodhayana - Brahmana can do Hiranya sraadha in absence of cooked food or brahmanas, in pilgrimage, in childbirth and in eclipse. Sudra should always do Hiranya sraadham only.

13. Vrudha Yagnavalkya - On birth of child, whatever danam is given, be it gold, land, cow, horse, goat, cloth, bed, seat, brahmana can accept; he should avoid only cooked food. If he eats, he should observe chandrayanam. For gnatis (paternal relatives) alone, there is no bar, as Manusmriti says so.

14. Sankar says that on this day danam may be given to gnatis also - To all gnatis should be given male and female servants, cows, gold foodgrains etc.

15. Vyasa - As soon as the child is born, Devas and Pitrus come towards him; hence that day becomes meritorious and praiseworthy. That day one should give gold, land, cow, horse, chariot, umbrella, goat, cloth, garland, bed, seat and house. During birth of child, one can accept gold, foodgrains, cow, cloth, mixed food, jaggery and ghee.

16. Parasara - Danam given in field and on the occasions of marriage, sankramanam, eclipse, death, birth of child and vyathipatham is of inexhaustible merit.

17. Sankar’s statement: ’During childbirth, there is no harm in accepting danam of jaggery etc. before cutting of umbilical cord’ and similar statements of Haaritha and Paijavapa imply that before umbilical cord is cut, Jatakarma and Naandi sraadham should be done.

18. Satyavrata in the same vein - ‘In childbirth, before umbilical cord is cut, Jatakarma and Naandi sraadham should be done’. In the matter of acceptance of danam, whole of that day is creditable in view of many smritis. Vrudhamanu - Danam can be accepted during the whole of the day of childbirth.

19. Yagnavalkya - The day of birth of child is free from defect, as the ancestors are born that day.

20. Haaritha - The day of birth of child is meritorious, owing to the happiness of the ancestors.

21. Gautama - The time before cutting of umbilical cord is meritorious; some say this about the whole of that day.

22. Sankar - There is no fault in accepting danam before cutting of umbilical cord; some say this about the whole of that day.

23. In Sangraham - As the day of childbirth is meritorious, danam should be given; others can accept.

24. Jatukarnya - If child is born during the period of pollution of death, Jatakarma and Namakaranam should be done after the period of pollution of death is over. If child is born during the period of pollution of birth of some other child, Jatakarma and Namakaranam may be done immediately.

25. In Purnasagraham - There is no pollution in eclpse, Ganga and childbirth. Even if one had taken food, one can take bath and give danam etc.

26. Prajapati - In case of childbirth when there is pollution, the karta becomes pure temporarily. In Smrityarthasaram - After childbirth, father should take bath and perform Naandi sraadham, whether it is night, sandhya time or eclipse; he can do this even in the middle of some other pollution.

27. Sruti specifies Ishti in case of childbirth to Aahitagni - In case of childbirth, he should do Vaisvanara Ishti with ‘Purodasam’ (oblation of ground rice) in 12 ‘kapalas’ (vessels). That child will be pure, lustrous, eater of food, virile and have wealth of cows. This Ishti is ‘kamya’ (desire - driven - optional), as there is expectation from the child. This Ishti should be performed in Parvakala, after pollution is over. Jatakarma should be done immediately after birth.

28. In Smritiratnam - On birthday (star) every year, all should take bath, wear auspicious things and do Pooja to Guru, Devas, Agni and brahmanas. Every year on the day of birth star, one should do Pooja to Pitrus, Devas and Brahma and also celebrate in a big way.

46. Namakaranam

1. Manu - On the 10th or 12th day from the day of childbirth, Namakaranam (naming ceremony) should be done. If done afterwards, a day of good tithi, day of week and star should be chosen.

2. Gobila - Namakaranam should be done after 10 or 100 days or one year.

3. In Bahuvrichaparisishtam - Namakaranam should be done after 10 or 100 days or one year from day of birth.

4. Yagnavalkya - Namakaranam on 11th day, Nishkramanam in 4th month, Annaprasanam in 6th month and Chowlam as per family tradition should be done.

5. In Smritiratnam - Father should do Namakaranam on 10th day. If father is not there or not fit, another person or elder in the clan should do Jatakarma etc.

6. Sankar - Father or elder in the clan should give the name of Kuladevata or related to star.

7. Vyasa - Some say that Namakaranam may be done on 10th day; some, 12th day, some, after one month; some, on 18th day.

8. Bharaskara - On 10th day, the woman who has delivered should be got up and Naandi and Namakaranam should be done.

9. Sankar - On 10th day, the woman who has delivered should be got up and Naandi should be done.

10. Manu - The name should be indicative of auspiciousness for brahmana, strength for kshatriya, wealth for vaisya and criticism for sudra.

11. Surname of Sarma for brahmana, surname indicative of protection for kshatriya, indicative of well - being for vaisya and slavery for sudra should be added to the name. Examples - Bhadra Sarma, Sakti Pala, Dhana Pushta, Heena Dasa. Some accept meaningfulness for the surnames. In that case examples are Sumati, Dhritarashtra, Nidhipala, Pasusakha etc.

12. Yama - Surnames are Sarma and Deva for brahmana, Varma and Trata for kshatriya, Bhuti and Datta for vysya and Dasa for sudra. Name as per Manu’s instruction should be added first. Bhadra Sarma and Bhadra Deva are names for brahmana; similar for others.

13. Aasvalayana - For all the four varnas, surnames of Sarma, Varma, Gupta and Dasa respectively should be added after the name.

14. Aapasthambha - On 10th day, after the woman who has delivered has taken bath, mother and father should do Namakaranam for the child. If Namakaranam is done thus on 10th day, the woman who has delivered should take bath after getting out of the delivery room. For purity she should take bath on 11th day also. Mother and father should do Namakaranam together; Sruti also says this.

15. Aapasthambha - Name should have 2 or 4 letters, starting with word ‘su’; with ‘kvi’after that, indicative of action; dirgham(long), ‘visargam’ at the end; ‘ghoshavat’ (soft consonant) letter at the beginning; ‘antastha’ (semi - vowel) letter in the middle. Example - Girda:, Varda:, Hiranyada: etc. Another way without these characteristics - The word which has ‘su’ as prefix is specially good; ‘Sujata:, Sudarsana:’ etc.

16. Paijavapa - Father should give a name, which has 1,2,3,4 or many letters, starting with ‘ghoshavat’ letter, ‘antastha’ in the middle, long ‘visarga’ at end and ‘krudantam’ and not ‘dattidantam’.

17. Bodhayana - The name should at least refer to Rishis, Devatas and ancestors.

18. Sankar - Father should give name related to Kuladevatas and stars.

19. Manu on names for girls - For girls, name should be easy to pronounce, not cruel, with clear meaning, attractive, auspicious, with ‘dirgha’ (long) letter at end and benedictory.

20. Bharaskara - Name of girl should have odd number of letters and end with ‘Aa’.

21. Sankar - If name ending with ‘e’ is given to girl, the clan gets purified.

22. Aapasthambha - For girl, name should have odd number of letters, like’ Sree:, Yasoda, Parvati’.

23. Note the requirements as per Grihya and family tradition.

47. Piercing the Ears

1. In Sayaneeyam - Piercing the ears (Karna vedhanam) in Karthik, Pousha, Phalguna and Chaitra months in Sukla paksha on auspicious day is creditable. The artisan should pierce the ear of the baby on the lap of mother, who has not yet grown teeth, with needle having two threads.

48. Nishkramanam (Taking baby out in open)

1. Manu - In 4th month of the baby, nishkramanam from the house of birth should be done.

2. In Smritichandrika - Nishkramanam should be done on 12th day. Some say that it should be done in 4th month.

3. Sankar - In 4th month the baby should be made to have darshan of Surya.

4. Yama - In 3rd month the baby should be made to have darshan of Surya and in 4th month, darshan of Chandra.

5. In Smrityarthasara - Nishkramanam and darshan of Chandra, Surya and Devas should be enabled on 12th day or 3rd or 4th month.

49. Annaprasanam

1. Manu - Annaprasanam (first feeding of child with solid food) and auspicious activities of family tradition should be done in 6th month.

2. Yama - Annaprasanam and auspicious activities of family tradition should be done in 6th or 8th month.

3. Lokakshi - It should be done in 6th month or after teething.

4. Sankar - It should be done before close of a year; some say, afterwards.

5. Aapasthambha - In 6th month from birth, after performing Naandi and Punyahavachanam, Prasanam (feeding) with mantras should be done to the child, of mixture of curd, honey, ghee and cooked rice. Meaning is that 6th month as calculated from the day of birth.

6. Brihaspati - He says that Annaprasanam should be done after 150 days within 180 days; Note requirements from respective Grihyam.

7. Markandeya - In the presence of Devata, cooked rice with honey, ghee and gold from a golden vessel should be fed to the decorated child on the lap of the mother; then ‘payasam’ (sweet pudding of rice) should be fed. Mother should then leave the child on the ground.

8. Markandeya on testing of livelihood - Then in the presence of child, the materials for sculpture and weapons should be kept for testing. Whichever article is first touched by the child indicates the future means of livelihood of the child.

50. Discussion of Chowla

1. Manu - The three varnas of dvijas should get Chudakarma (ceremony of tonsure) done in 1st or 3rd year as per family tradition, as stipulated in Sruti. A Sruti passage says: ‘Where arrows fall like boys with many tufts of hair’.

2. Yagnavalkya - In 6th month, annaprasanam and tonsure as per family practice should be done.

3. Sounaka - Chowla (ceremony of tonsure) should be done in 3rd year or as per family practice. Meaning is that the tradition of when and how Chowla is done in the family should be followed.

4. Yama - After the 1st year ends, either in 2nd or 3rd year, Chowla should be done as per family practice and Veda.

5. Paijavapa - Chowla in 3rd year.

6. Sankar - Chowla in 3rd or 5th year.

7. Lokakshi - After most of 3rd year is over, Chowla should be done. The tuft of hair is on the right side for Kamujas and Vasishthas; on the left for Bharadvajas; on both sides for Athreyas and Kasyapas. Clean shaven head for Bhrugu gotra persons. Five tufts of hair for Angirases. Some have line of hair; some say that for auspiciousness, tuft can be kept somewhere on the head. Tuft of hair may be kept as per family practice.

8. Aapasthambha - The tufts of hair should be as many as the number of Rishis in one’s Pravaram; or tuft may be as per family practice.

9. Here number of years should be calculated from birth. Aapasthambha - Chowla should be done in Punarvasu star after more than half of 3rd year from birth is completed. By Punarvasu all specified stars should be considered.

10. Vyasa - It can be done in stars - Asvini, Sravanam, Svati, Chitra, Pushyam, Punarvasu, Sravishta, Revati, Jyeshta, Mrigasirsha and Hastham. It should not be done in birthstar, Purvaproshtapada, Uthiraproshtapada and Krithika stars. Tithis of Prathama, Chaturthi, Navami, Chaturdasi and Shashti and days of Saturday, Sunday and Tuesday and nighttime are forbidden.

11. Garga - When mother is pregnant, chowlam of child should not be done, as death will occur from tool.

12. Narada - Chowlam should not be done to child of less than 5 years, if mother is pregnant. After 5 years, it can be done even if mother is pregnant. If karmas from Garbhadhanam till Chowlam are not done in prescribed times, Ajyahomam with vyahritis should be done, followed by Prayaschitta. Out of these, for every lapse, pada (quarter) kruchram should be done; for lapse in Chowlam, half kruchram is prescribed. If transgression has occurred knowingly, twice the Prayaschitta should be done.

51. Jatakarma etc. of Women

1. Yagnavalkya - Karmas from Jatakarma till Chowlam should be done to female children without mantra and marriage with mantra.

2. Manu - Jatakarma etc. should be done for girls entirely without mantra and in time as prescribed.

3. Gobila - In addition to performing these karmas for girls without mantra, homa should also be done without mantra.

4. Katyayana says that Prayaschitta is specified if these karmas are not done for girls also in time - If samskaras like upanayanam are not done in time, the Sarvaprayaschitta should be done after homa. Homa done with five mantras separately is called Sarvaprayaschitta.

5. In Chandrika it is stated that for females also, if the time for upanayanam is exceeded, vratyaprayaschitta should be done.

6. Manu says that for females, marriage alone is upanayanam - It is stated that for females, marriage alone is upanayanam. Service of husband is living in Gurukula. Attending to household work is Agnikaryam. Hence in case of females also, the rules, ‘Before upanayanam, living, talking and eating as one pleases are permissible, but not afterwards’ apply equally.

7. The statement of Haaritha, ‘Women are of two types - brahmavadinis and sadyovadhus. Of them, for brahmavadinis, upanayanam, Agnikaryam, study of Vedas and living on alms in their own home are all there. For sadyovadhus, upanyanam should be done somehow at the time of marriage prior to marriage ceremony’ refers to the dharma of previous kalpa.

8. Yama in the same vein - In the previous kalpa, for women also, upanayanam, study of Vedas and Gayatri japa were prescribed. None other than father, his brother and her own brother should teach Veda to women. They should do living on alms in their own homes. Deerskin, bark of tree and matted hair should not be worn by them.

9. In Smrityarthasara - These samskaras should be done as per family practice for the sake of eliminating the faults due to seed and living in uterus. They should be done without mantra for females. Marriage should be done with mantra. If prescribed time is exceeded, vyahriti homa should be done prior to the karma. If any one karma has lapsed timewise, quarter kruchram is specified; if the lapse has occured knowingly, prayaschitta is twice.

52. Aksharabhyasam (Beginning of Study)

1. Markandeya - After 5th year has set in, Vidyarambham should be done during the time Vishnu is awake, eliminating Shashti, Prathama, Ashtami, Riktatithis, Parvas, Saturday and Tuesday, in auspicious time.

2. In Sayaneeyam - Akshararambham should be done after 5th year has set in for the child, in Uttarayana in month other than Kumbha masa, when Surya is in Kataka and in auspicious time as per sastra. If it is day of Surya, Sukra or Guru (Sunday, Friday or ThursdaY), even a fool will become scholar. If it is day of Chandra or Budha (Monday or Wednesday), loss of strength and if it is day of Angaraka or Sani (Tuesday or Saturday), destruction will happen. The creditable stars are: Sravanam, Punarvasu, Pushyam, Rohini, Sravishta, Swati, Sadayam, Anusham, Jyeshta, Hastham and Chitra.

3. Markandeya - After performing Pooja to Vishnu, Lakshmi, Saraswati, authors of sutra for one’s vidya and one’s vidya, Ajyahomam in their names, getting blessings of brahmanas with dakshina and worshipping brahmanas, Guru facing east should perform Akshararambham to child facing west. From then on, Anadhyayana days, two Ashtamis and Parvas should be avoided.

53. Dharmas prior to Upanayanam

1. Aapasthambha - Children do not become impure by touching woman in menses etc. prior to Annaprasanam. Some say that this goes upto one year. Some say, till the child understands directions. Some say, upto upanayanam. Only after upanayanam, the child is subject to dos and donts of sastra. Upanayanam is the dividing line for this condition. There is Smriti on this matter.

2. Daksha - Child is considered as child only from birth till the age of eight. Till upanayanam, there is no fault in food, drink, words and telling lies. After upanayanam, there is fault if he indulges in forbidden acts. This should not lead to doubt that there is no bar in drinking liquor etc.; as Gautama has said, ‘brahmana should always avoid liquor’. ‘Always’ forbids liquor for one who has not yet undergone upanayanam. One should not doubt that before upanayanam, there is no brahminhood; as Haaritha and Yagnyavalkya identify caste from birth, ‘brahmana is one born of brahmana father and brahmana mother’; Manu prescribes upanayanam only for brahmana, ‘in eighth year from conception, upanayanam should be done to brahmana’.

3. Gautama - Before upanayanam, it is not faulty to behave as he pleases, tell lies and eat old food etc. He should not eat offerings kept for oblation. He should not be attached to women. It is not fault to pass urine and faeces without consideration of direction. He need not do achamanam as per rules. Washing off leavings, cleaning of anus and sprinkling of water in case of touching woman in menses etc. are required. When he is impure, touching him does not render others impure. He should not be used in homa and baliharanam. He should not be asked to pronounce Veda. He may be asked to pronounce Veda in Preta karma only. Rules operate from time of upanayanam. Behaving as one pleases excludes ‘mahapatakas’ (great sins). If he does mahapatakam, there is Prayaschitta. Old man, 80 years, boy less than 16years, women and the diseased should observe Prayaschitta of half the extent. If sin occurs to boy over 5 years and under 11 years, his father or close relative/ friend should observe Prayaschitta for him. For boy less than 5 years, there is no fault, sin or royal pumishment; hence no Prayaschitta also. It should be noted that though it says ‘prior to upanayanam’ here in a general manner, behaving as one pleases should be only upto the age of 6 years. Thereafter father et al should make the boy engage in varna dharmas. If they do not, they are candidates for Prayaschitta and punishment, as given in Mitakshara. If the child takes away and eats the balance of Purodasam (oblation of ground rice) from homa and of offering from Vaisvadeva, parents should stop it. Even if upanayanam has not taken place in time, there should be no contact with women; he should remain a brahmachari. There is no room for doubt that the term ‘brahmachari’ indicates the dharmas applicable to brahmachari; as he is equal to sudra till upanayanam, he has no karma till then as per Vasishtha smriti. There is no fault in his passing urine and excreta while standing, in forbidden places like public path and without regard to direction. As per the rule, ‘woman and sudra should do achamanam once’, he should also do achamanam once. Even for boy less than 6 years, cleansing with water the place of food leavings, cleansing the anus after passing excreta and sprinkling of water on touching woman in menses etc. should be done for protection from spirits and ghosts.

4. Saatatapa also stipulates this - ‘From the age of 6, he should do cleansing etc. on his own; bath is required in case of touching woman in menses etc.’

5. Gautama says that by touching him there is no impurity. Before the age of 6, for boy who has not undergone upanayanam, there is no impurity on touching chandala et al. Hence touching him does not require bath. Haradatta says that touching the boy after his eating or passing urine or excreta does not require achamanam.

6. In Smritichandrika, special mention is made - There is impurity in touching the child after his touching chandala et al; as there is no mention of age in the passage, ‘Bath with clothes as worn is required for one who has touched chandala, woman who has delivered baby, woman in menses and corpse’. He should not be asked to engage in Aupasana homa and Vaisvadeva baliharanam, as he cannot pronounce mantra. He can pronounce mantra only in Preta karma.

7. Manu has also stipulated the same.

8. The above has been mentioned in Smrityarthasaram also.

9. Aapasthambha also stipulates the same. Vasishtha - The boy should not pronounce mantra except in Udakadanam, Pretakaryam and Pitrukaryam.

54. Upanayanam - Proper Time

1. Manu - Upanayanam should be done in 8th year from conception for brahmana, 11th year for kshatriya and 12th year for vaisya. The idea behind the stipulation of age is as follows: Sruti says that the three varnas of brahmana, kshatriya and vaisya are born with the three chandas, Gayatri, Trishtup and Jagati. Upanayanam for the three varnas is prescribed with these three chandas. Hence it would be creditable if the age of upanayanam is equal to the number of letters in the respective chandas. Sruti says about the number of letters in chandas, ‘Gayatri is of 8 letters, Trishtup of 11 and Jagati of 12.’ This refers to each pada of the chandas, as Sruti says elsewhere, ‘Gayatri is of 24 letters, Trishtup of 44 and Jagati of 48’. Haaritha - Upanayanam should be done in years corresponding to the number of letters in the pada of their respective chandas. Hence upanayanam in 8, 11 and 12 years respectively for the three varnas is significant.

2. Yagnavalkya - Upanayanam should be done in 8th year from conception or birth for brahmana, 11th year from conception for kshatriya and 12th year from conception for vaisya. Some say that the calculation of years should be as per family practice.

3. Sruti - Upanayanam should be done for 8 year old brahmana.

4. Aapasthambha - Upanayanam should be done in 8th years from conception for brahmana, 11th years for kshatriya and 12th years for vaisya. The Rtus (seasons) should be Vasantham (spring), Grishmam (summer) and Sarad (autumn) respectively. As the number of years is in plural here - 8th years from conception, it is possible to do upanayanam in any of those 8 years. But in 3 years from birth, there are samskaras upto chowlam; in 4th year even aksharabhyasam is not there; owing to incapacity upanayanam cannot be done until then. Hence the plural here refers by kapinjaladi nyaya to the three years of 6,7 and 8. Hence they say that these three years are important according to Aapasthambha. Some say that 8th year from conception alone is proper time; not the rest; the plural is ‘chandasam’. Guidance should be taken from respective family practice.

5. Gautama - Upanayanam should be done in 8th year for brahmana, 11th year for kshatriya and 12th year for vaisya; calculation of years from conception.

6. Gautama on ‘kamya’ (optional) upanayanam - Kamya upanayanam in 9th or 5th year.

7. Angiras - Upanayanam should be done in 5th year for brahmana desirous of lustre of Brahman and in 9th year for one desirous of long life.

8. Manu - Upanayanam should be done in 5th year for brahmana desirous of power of Brahman, in 6th year for kshatriya desirous of strength and in 8th year for vysya desirous of wealth.

9. Angiras - If upanayanam is done in 6th or 12th year for kshatriya, there will be growth of strength and life. If done in 8th or 14th year for vysya, there will be growth of agriculture etc. and life.

10. In Smritiratnam - Through upanayanam in 7th or 8th year, brahmana attains power of Brahman and long life; in 9th or 10th year, kshatriya attains brilliance and proper food etc.; in 11th or 12th year, vysya attains vitality and cattle.

11. Bodhayana - To one desirous of power of Brahman, long life, brilliance, proper food etc., vitality, cattle, sharp intellect, nourishment, brother and all of these, upanayanam should be done in respective years from 7th to 16th.

12. Bharadvaja - Upanayanam may be done in spring for brahmana, in summer for kshatriya, in autumn for vysya, in rainy season for rathakara and in inter for all.

13. In Chandrika - The auspicious seasons for upanayanam are spring for brahmana, summer for kshatriya and autumn for vysya. Or 5 months starting from Magha are auspicious for all.

14. In astrology also - Upanayanam is creditable in 5 months starting from Magha.

15. In Dharmasara Sudhanidhi - Upanayanam can be done in spring for brahmana, summer for kshatriya and autumn for vysya. Or 5 months starting from Magha are stipulated for all.

16. VrudhaVasishtha - Upanayanam should be done in uttarayana for brahmana and kshatriya and in dakshinayana for vaisya. It should not be done on day of Anadhyayanam and sankramanam. Upanayanam demanded by occasion (naimittika) can be done even on Anadhyayana day. If upanayanam is done in Jyeshta month for seemanthaja (eldest) son, he will become a simpleton; he will die too.

17. Vrudha Gargya - In upanayanam done as Prayaschitta, days of Anadhyayanam and Krishna prathama etc. are prescribed. Sukla chaturdasi In upanayanam done after prime time and Krishna prathama in repeat upanayanam are creditable.

18. In Apararga - Upanayanam should not be done when Chandra is weak, Sukra is in 8th house, Surya is ‘niramsa’, day of Anadhyayanam and in ‘kalagraha’. Surya in the first part of Rasi is called ‘niramsa’. ‘Kalagrahas’ are nine tithis - the four tithis from trayodasi, three tithis from saptami and chaturdasi and ekadasi. Guru, Sukra, Angaraka and Budha are respectively the lords of the four Vedas - Rik, Yajur, sama and Atharva. Upanayanam should be done on the day of the lord of the respective branch of Veda in the week.

19. In Sayaneeyam - Days of week of Guru, Sukra, Angaraka and Budha are creditable for upanayanam of the followers of Rik, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas respectively.

20. Vrudha Gargya - The 3 days of week from Wednesday and the day of Chandra are very good for upanayanam. It is good to perform upanayanam on the day of the lord of the branch of Veda when he is strong in centre. Knowers of sastras say that if he is not strong, mixture of varnas will take place. Suitable for commencing and closing the vrata for the three varnas are: three stars from Hastam, Pushyam, Sravishta, Revati, Asvini, Mrigasirsha, Punarvasu and Sravanam; good tithi; time of strength of Chandra.

21. Yagnavalkya on the cause of brahmanaism - Brahmanas, kshatriyas and vysyas are called ‘dvijas’ as they are born from mother first and born through upanayanam for the second time.

22. Vasishtha also - First birth from mother and second birth in upanayanam.

23. Manu - First birth from mother, second birth in upanayanam and third in Yaga diksha. In the second birth called upanayanam, Savitri herself is mother and the Acharya, the father.

24. Acharya is called father as he gives Savitri herself, who is of the form of all Vedas; as the boy has no Vaidic activity prior to upanayanam.

25. Aapasthambha - Acharya gives birth to the student from Vidya. That birth is greater. Mother and father give birth only to the body.

55. Upanayanam - Secondary Time

1. Manu - Upanayanam does not go beyond permitted time upto end of 16th year for brahmana, 22nd year for kshatriya and 24th year for vysya. The age is twice the recommended age in prime time kalpa.

2. Vyasa - The secondary time (gouna kalam) for upanayanam for the three varnas is upto 16, 22 and 24 years. Meaning is that thereafter even secondary time is not there.

3. Yagnavalkya - The secondary time for upanayanam for the three varnas is upto 16, 22 and 24 years.

4. Aapasthambha - Time for upanayanam does not get transgressed upto 16th, 22nd and 24th year for the three varnas.

5. Gautama - Time for upanayanam does not get transgressed upto 16th year for brahmana.

6. Manu - Those of the three varnas, who do not undergo upanayanam even in secondary time, are called ‘vratyas’ as they have not received the initiation of Savitri; they are despised by disciples. With them, who have not done Prayaschitta as per rules, relations like study of Vedas, teaching of Vedas, giving girl in marriage and acceptance of danam should not be had even in adversity.

7. In Chandrika - For vratya, who has not done Prayaschitta, one should not do upanayanam, teaching of Vedas, performing yagas and marriage.

8. Yama - Those of all varnas, who have not undergone upanayanam even in secondary time, are ‘fallen’, vratyas; hence fit to be ignored by persons of good conduct.

9. Bodhayana - As they are ‘fallen’ after secondary time, one should not do upanayanam, teaching of Vedas, performing yagas and marriage for them; here, ‘in absence of Prayaschitta’ should be added.

10. Yagnavalkya stipulates Prayaschitta for one who has not undergone upanayanam even in secondary time - After secondary time is over, he is ‘fallen’, not having right to any dharmas, not fit for danam of Savitri and is called ‘vratya’. He has no right except to the Prayaschitta kratu called ‘vratyastoma’. Though he has no wife, knowledge of Vedas and Adanam, he has right to that kratu only, due to the support of sastra.

11. Vasishtha stipulates different Prayaschitta - One who has not undergone upanayanam even in secondary time should observe Uddalaka vrata. The procedure for that - Taking only kanji (gruel) of barley for two months; milk for one month; curd of milk and whey for half month; ghee for 8 days; food obtained without begging, for 6 days; water for 3 days; fast without even water for one day. Or, he should attend ‘avabhruta’ (closing ceremony) of Asvamedhayga; or he should do at least vratyastoma yaga. ‘Food obtained without begging’ refers to havishyam (offering in oblation) in all vratas; he can take it only once a day.

12. Aapasthambha - One should wait for getting the strength to observe the vrata of brahmachari and then perform upanayanam soon. For a capable person, there is Prayaschitta for exceeding time beyond 8 years. If capable, there is Prayaschitta even after exceeding the secondary time. He should observe dharma of brahmachari for 2 months, except for Agni paricharanam, study of Vedas and service to Guru. Upanayanam can then be done. For one year thereafter, he should take bath thrice a day. One who is not capable may do as per his capacity. He should be made to study Vedas thereafter.

13. Jaimini’s statement, ‘For one who is beyond 16 years, upanayanam should not be done; he is ‘vrushala’ (sudra) refers to one who has not done Prayaschitta.

14. In Smrityarthasara - Upanayanam should be done for the three varnas respectively in 8th, 11th and 12th year from conception or birth. If not done, gouna kala (secondary time) is upto 16th, 22nd and 24th year. He who has not undergone upanayanam even during that period is unfit for danam of Savitri and is called vratya. If he does Prayaschitta, upanayanam etc. can be performed for him.

56. Upanayanam - Preparation of Sacred thread etc.

1. Manu - Upavita (sacred thread) for brahmana is cotton thread, for kshatriya it is jute thread, for vaisya it is thread of goat’s hair. It should have been folded thrice, kept in left hand and made into thread with raised right hand.

2. In Grihyaparisishtam - Upavita has three srings; each string has three threads. Yagnopavita has total of 9 threads.

3. Devala - Yagnopavita should be made of 9 threads; Sruti also refers to 9 threads - ‘trivrut’.

4. Katyayana - String of 3 threads should be prepared from downside and that of 9 threads from upside.

5. Brihaspati - Cotton grown in clean ground should be used. Thread prepared by brahmana woman, with husband alive, should be used.

6. In Smritisaram - In case of cut or loss of upavita, one should become pure by bath and receive thread made by unmarried girl or widow.

7. In Madhaviyam - Upavita should be made of 9 threads. It should be twisted from below if 3 threads and from upside if 9 threads.

8. In Chandrika - The string prepared with raised right hand by folding thrice and twisting is called ‘urdhva vrutam’.

9. Devala on Devata for each thread - Devatas for the 9 threads respectively are Omkara, Agni, Bhaga, Soma, Pitrus, Prajapati, Vishnu, Dharma and all Devatas. In temple outside village or cowpen or riverbank or any other clean place, rolling thread 96 times in four fingers, making it into three threads, washing with three ‘Aapohishta’ mantras and folding thrice with Gayatri mantra, it will become 9 threads. It should be made into three rolls. Pitrus are pleased with this. One should clap thrice. This pleases Devas. Taking clay in left hand pronouncing ‘Bhu:’, leaf, flower or fruit should be offeed to it pronouncing vyahritis. Then sanctifying with mantras, ‘Bhuragnim’, one should prostrate to Hari, Brahma and Iswara. For wearing it, mantra ‘yagnopavitam’ is prescribed; with that mantra or vyahriti one can wear it.

10. This mantra is specified in Grihyaparisishtam. Bodhayana also specifies the same.

11. Devala on rule for knot - The string should be rolled 2 or 3 times and knotted only once.

12. Katyayana - Upavita has 9 threads. It has one knot. Upavita should measure such that if held round the backbone and navel, it should touch the waist; it should not be higher or lower than that.

13. Vasishtha and Saatatapa - If upavita is above navel, there will be reduction in life; if below, reduction in tapas; hence it should be worn at navel level.

14. Devala on the situation of non - availability of such upavita - Upavita should never be worn above the level of breast and below the navel.

15. Bhrigu - Sastra says that upavita is one for brahmachari; two for grihastha and vanaprastha and one for sanyasi.

16. Devala - Upavita is one for brahmachari; two or three for snathaka (one who has completed Gurukulavasa). If uttariya (upper cloth) is not there, third upavita is specified for that purpose.

17. In Smritisara - Upavita is one for person who has studied one Veda; he can wear as many upavitas as the number of Veda branches he has studied. They say that one who desires long life can wear many upavitas.

18. Bharadvaja - Chanting Devata’s name and mantra, upavita should be worn on the neck by inserting the right hand and head through it. For grihastha and vanaprastha, chanting of mantra and achamanam is prescribed for wearing each upavita. Two upavitas must be worn in Sroutha and smartha karmas; third upavita for uttariya (upper cloth). That is prescribed in lieu of uttariya. One upavita for brahmachari and sanyasi, eight or ten upavitas for grihastha and four for vanaprastha are prescribed. If dvija is without upavita even one day, he becomes sudra. He will be born a dog in next birth. One, who has cut upavita due to anger or greed, shold observe three kruchras; incapable person should observe at least one kruchram.

19. Bhrigu - One should always wear upavita, with hair tied in tuft. Any karma done without this is equal to not done. This does not mean that this rule applies only during time of karma. Bhrigu himself says: ‘One must not remove from his body upavita, which is sanctified with mantra. If he wishes well, he should wear it always. He should never remove it; even if he removes once, dvija will require Prayaschitta.’

20. Vyasa - Karma done without tuft of hair and upavita is Rakshasa (demoniacal). All karmas will be useless. Hence upavita should be worn before Agnisandhanam etc. in upanayanam.

21. Bhrigu - In case hair is found in upavita, the hair should be removed, Gayatri mantra should be chanted 10 times and upavita should be wetted with sanctified water. Upavita, which has snapped, fallen on ground or prepared after food, must be discarded. Footwear, cloth, upavita, decoration, garland and kamandalu (water pot), used by other must not be used.

22. Manu - In case of damage to mekhala (waist band), deerskin, dandam (staff), upavita and kamandalu, they should be discarded in water and new ones taken with mantra.

23. Pitamaha - Karmas laid down in Veda like bath, danam, japam etc. by one, who does not know the rules of upavita, are useless. The fool, who does not know the rules of upavita, wears heavy upavita in vain, like a cow wears the rope.

24. If upavita as per rules above is not available, Devala - Dvijas should wear upavita of cotton, silk, jute, threadlike portion of bark of tree or grass.

25. Gobila - Upavita may be of cotton thread, cloth or string of kusa grass. Only in the absence of cloth, string may be used. Rishyasringa says, ‘In absence of upavita, karmas may be done with cloth on; if cloth is not there, string of three strands’. Aapasthambha specifies string in lieu of cloth: ‘One should always wear uttariya (upper cloth); or, atleast string’.

26. Haaritha - All varnas can wear, on occasions like Mahadanam, upavita made of pearls or gold.

27. In Smrityarthasara - When performing karmas,cloth or string of 9 threads should be used as upavita. Being pure and sitting in clean place, taking four fingers of right hand together, rolling thread 96 times in those fingers, making it into three threads, washing with three ‘Aapohishta’ mantras, twisting anti - clockwise upwards three times, folding thrice with Gayatri mantra, twisting clockwise, it will become 9 threads. It should be made into three rolls and knotted properly, while praying to Trimurtis.

28. Bodhayana - After bath and achamanam, taking thread from pure brahmana unmarried girl or widow, going east or north outside the village, rolling 96 times in size of 4 inches, use that roll etc.

29. Bodhayana again - One who has studied four Vedas must wear four upavitas; three Vedas, three upavitas; two Vedas, two upavitas; one Veda, one upavita.

30. Manu - Wearing upavita like a garland in the neck is called ‘Niveetam’. Taking right arm inside that string is called ‘upavitam’. Taking left arm inside that string is called ‘Prachinavitam’.

31. Sruti also says the same. It also mentions karmas for upavita etc. - Niveetam in human - related karmas like Rishi tarpanam, Prachinavitam in Pitru karmas like Pitru yagnam and Upavita in Deva karyas like Agnihotram are creditable.

32. Vyasa - If upavita is on left shoulder and right arm has been taken out of that, it is called ‘upavitam’. If upavita is on right shoulder and left arm has been taken out of that, it is called ‘prachinavitam’. If it hangs on the neck, it is ‘niveetam’. Upaviti position is definitely required in temple, cowpen, homa, japa, study of Vedas, food, presence of brahmanas, praying to Gurus, sandhyas and association with the virtuous. This is ancient rule.

33. Aapasthambha - One must be in Upaviti position while praying to Gurus, elders and guests and in homa, japa, food, achamanam and study of Vedas.

34. Some explain on the basis of these rules that on other occasions upavita is not required. Others say that this explanation cannot be supported because it would contradict many smritis and conduct of the virtuous. Some smriti passages are: ‘Upavita should never be removed; it should remain on the body’; ‘One should always wear upavita, with hair tied in tuft’.

35. They say that in case of damage to upavita within four days after upanayanam, Sarvaprayaschitta homa and Anagnatadi mantra japa must be done and yagnopavita must then be worn again.