Rudram Chamakam


In this Anuvakam, it is prayed that Devatas- Agni, Soma, Savita, Saraswati, Poosha, Brihaspati, Mitra, Varuna, Tvashta, Dhata, Vishnu, Asvinidevas, Maruts, Visvedevas, Prithvi (Earth) Devata, Antariksha (Intermediate region) Devata, Dyuloka (Swarga) Devata, Devatas of Directions, Urdhvadik (Upward direction) Devata- all should be favourable to me. As indra enjoys pleasures equal to each of these Devatas, Indra is cited with each Devata- ‘अग्निश्चम इन्द्रश्चमे, सोमश्चम इन्द्रश्चमे’ etc.

मूर्धा- Urdhvadik (Upward Direction). As this direction is considered more important than all other directions, it is mentioned separately.


अंशुः, अदाभ्यं etc. mentioned in this Anuvakam are specific vessels, generally  called ‘Graha’, used in Somayaga. ‘Rasmi’ is not ‘Graha’; but as it is used for picking up the graha ‘Adaabhya’, it is mentioned separately. The word अधिपतिः indicates दधिग्रह. As that graha is greater than other grahas as mentioned in Sruti, ज्येष्ठो वा एष ग्रहाणां, the word अधिपतिः refers to दधिग्रह.

The graha ध्रुवं is indicated by the term वैश्वानर on occasion. Here there are two वैश्वदेव words. The first is in ‘Praatassavanam’; the second pertains to ‘Tritiyasavanam’.  The grahas सारस्वतः and पौष्णः are used in ‘Vikritiyaga’.

The prayer is that all the above grahas should be favourable to me.


इध्मः, बर्हिः etc. mentioned in this Anuvakam are all articles used in yaga. They are well known in Yagnaprakaranam. The prayer is that all be favourable to me.


अग्निः-  Agni used in ‘Sayanam’ yaga,  धर्मः-  karma called ‘Pravargyam’,  अर्कः-   Yaga indicated by the passage इन्द्रायार्कवते पुरोडशं,     सूर्यः-   Yaga indicated by the passage सौर्यं चरुं,    प्राणः-  Homam indicated by  प्राणाय स्वाहा,    अङ्गुलयः- finger-like limbs of Virat Purusha, viz. Devatas पृथिवी, अदितिः, दितिः, द्यौः, शक्वरीः,    दिशः-  directions.  ‘चकार’ (cha) indicates ‘Vidiks’ (intermediate directions).  All these- मे यज्ञेन-  through the yaga I do,  कल्पन्तां-  may become capable of doing their duties.  ऋक्- Rik mantra, साम-  Sama mantra,  स्तोमः-  Stotra consisting of continuous Sama rendering,  यजुः-  Yajur mantra,  दीक्षा-   Diksha, samskara for yajamana, the performer of yaga,  तपः-  fast etc. performed for annihilation of sins,  ऋतुः-   time of yagna,  व्रतं-  discipline in yagna,  बृहद्रथन्तरे-  Sama mantras ‘Brihat’ and ‘Rathantara’;  all these  मे यज्ञेन-   through the yagna I do,   कल्पन्तां-   may become capable of doing their duties.   अहोरात्रयोः वृष्ट्या-  By rain during day and night (may my crops grow in fertile manner).


गर्भाः-  calves in womb,   वत्साः-  calves less than one year old,   त्र्यविः-  bull, one and a half years old,   त्र्यवी-  cow, one and a half years old,  दित्यवाट्-   bull, two years old,  दित्यौही-  cow, two years old,  पञ्चाविः-  bull, two and a half years old,  पञ्चावी-   bull, two and a half years old,  त्रिवत्सः-   bull, three years old,   त्रिवत्सा-  cow, three years old,   तुर्यवाट्-    bull, three and a half years old,   तुर्यौही- cow, three and a half years old,   पष्टवाट्-  bull, four years old,  पष्टौही-  cow, four years old,   उक्षा-  bull, producing progeny,  वशा-  barren cow,   ऋषभः-  bull older than ‘Uksha’,   वॆहत्-  cow which has lost foetus (due to attack of bull),   अनडान्-    bull bearing burden in cart etc.,  धेनुः-  cow with young calf,   आयुः-  life,   प्राणः-  Prana,  अपानः-  Apana,  व्यानः-  Vyana,   चक्षुः-  eye,  श्रोत्रं-  ear,   मनः-   mind,   वाक्-  speech,  आत्मा-   body,  यज्ञेन कल्पतां-  through the yagna I do,  may become capable of doing their duties.  यज्ञः-  The yaga I shall perform later,  यज्ञेन कल्पतां-  may be fruitful by the yagna I am performing now.


एका-   One,   तिस्रः- three,   पञ्च-  five,   सप्त-  seven,   नव-  nine,   एकादश-  eleven,    त्रयोदश-  thirteen,  पञ्चदश-   fifteen,   सप्तदश-   seventeen,   नवदश-  nineteen,  एकविंशतिः- twentyone,  त्रयोविंशतिः-  twentythree,   पञ्चविंशतिः-   twentyfive,  सप्तविंशतिः-   twentyseven,   नवविंशतिः-  twentynine, एकत्रिंशत्-   thirtyone,  त्रयस्त्रिंशत्-  thirtythree,  चतस्रः-  four,  अष्टौ-  eight,  द्वादश- twelve,   षोडश- sixteen,  विंशतिः-  twenty,  चतुर्विंशतिः-   twentyfour,   अष्टाविंशतिः- twentyeight,  द्वात्रिंशत्- thirtytwo,  षट् त्रिंशत्-    thirtysix, चत्वारिंशत्-    forty,  चतुश्चत्वारिंशत्-  fortyfour,  अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्-  fortyeight.  The prayer is that all these numbers be favourable to me.

By the odd numbers from 1 to 33, Chandas liked by Devas are attained. By the even numbers from 4 to 48, Chandas liked by humans are attained. In order to get the love of Devas as well as humans, odd numbers and even numbers are both mentioned here.

वाजः-   Food,   प्रसवः-  its production,  अपिजः-  its frequent production,  क्रतुः-  the resolve to enjoy it, or, yaga,  सुवः-  Surya, the cause of food production,  मूर्धा-   sky,   व्यश्नियः- born in sky,  अन्त्यः-  born at the end,   भौवनः-    born in the world,  भुवनः-   world,   अधिपतिः-  king. (All this should be very favourable tto me).

Alternatively, the twelve words from वाजः to अधिपतिः may be taken to mean the names of the twelve months from ‘Chaitra’ to ‘Phalguna’. In that case, the idea is that those twelve months may do me good.

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