Bhagavad Gita Lessons

Lesson 5: When did the universe begin?                         
Session: 244

Lord Krishna says that universe is beginning less. As already detailed, the observed (which includes the body/mind complex of the observer), constitutes the entire universe, which are inert in nature. The sentiency or life seen in the universe is the reflection of the observer in the Aura element of the observed. Both the observer and the observed are beginning less. Observer has no beginning because it is the only truth that is present at all times. It belongs to the plane of absolute reality. By nature, it is conscious, eternal and joyful.

Teaching 125: Brahman is conscious, eternal and joyful

The observed has no beginning because it does not exist. Prior to creation, the observed was in unmanifested form. Then from its three attributes, Aura, Energy and Matter, the five building blocks namely, space, air, fire, water and earth are born. From the various combinations of these building blocks, all the objects in the universe were created. Among the objects created, the minds of the living beings have the unique capacity of reflecting the consciousness of the observer. This reflected consciousness of the mind lends the sentiency to the physical body differentiating it from the rest of the inert objects.

Thus, the observed is fully manifested as a universe with the combination of inert objects and living beings. Living beings are also inert and the differentiating factor is the presence of an inert mind that can reflect the consciousness of the observer.

Example: The robots created by scientists have borrowed intelligence called Artificial Intelligence.

The robots are not living-beings nor do they think they are. Similarly, the living beings in the universe, with the exception of human beings, are not self-conscious. Only in the case of human mind, the borrowed consciousness has grown to a level of claiming independence from the total existence.

Example: A group of robots claims independence from the human race in the science fiction movie, Terminator.

Similarly, human beings assume that they are independent of the universe.

The human beings are not different from the observed universe of inert objects. However, due to the presence of the reflected consciousness in the mind, they develop an ego and assume that they are living creatures, independent of the observer.

Thus, ego is the combination of the inert objects (body/mind complex) and the reflection of the consciousness of the observer.

The observed universe including the inert objects and living beings are comprised of the same three elements called Aura, Energy and Matter. However, the proportion in which they constituted in the mind of the various individual human beings varies. This variation is due to the actions done by the human being.

Example: A brass article can be made to appear as a mirror through shining with appropriate chemical.

Similarly, when the Aura Element is dominating the other two elements, an individual mind becomes more reflective compared to the fellow human beings. The quality of mind varies among the living beings depending on the actions done during the countless previous life times.

Since both the observer and the observed are beginning less and the process of manifestation and dissolution of the universe continues to happen for infinite number of times.

The ego is the doer and enjoyer in the world. The world is created for the enjoyment of the ego of the human beings in line with its past actions. Since the ego has done good deeds and bad deeds it goes through experiences that alternate between pleasure and pain.

The observer has no role in the creation except as a lender of consciousness. Even this is an action done without personal involvement.

Example: The king may not do any action and simply sleep in his bed. His mere presence as a king lends power to all the ministers to do action.

Similarly, the observer is not involved in any action to lend the consciousness. The illusion, the lower nature of God, appears as the universe, the observed. It is the material cause of the creation. Brahman, the higher nature of God is the intelligent cause of the creation and it is the observer.

Chapter 13: The Observer and the observed                    
Verse: 20

13.20 Material nature and the living entities should be understood to be beginning less. Their transformations and the modes of matter are products of material nature.

Lesson 6: What is Bondage and liberation?              
Session: 245

The interaction between the living being and the inert objects are in fact is the interaction between inert objects. Both the food and the body that eats the food are identical in nature. One form of food is converted into another form of food.

The inert objects of the universe are divided into two groups by the observer by lending his consciousness to one group that has the reflecting medium, mind. The reflected consciousness together with the body/mind complex is the ego.

Doer of the actions
The observer is not involved in any action.

The observed cannot do any action on its own since it is inert.

By nature, the observed is always changing in the presence of the observer. Observer does not cause the observed to change. It changes because it is its nature. Some parts of these changes are called as action.

 Example: A human being builds a house, lives and dies.

In this example, the whole sentence shows one aspect of change. However, one part of it, namely, building a house, is seen as an action.

The ego assumes the role of the doer of all such actions. The ego itself is the reflection and therefore not existing.

 Example: The reflection in the mirror is not real. It cannot do anything.

Whatever happens in the world is happening at the will of the observer. The ego has no role to play. However, it assumes the role of doer. The fact is there is no doer since nothing is being done.

Enjoyer of the action
The earth is continuously changing. Some parts of the changes are called actions and some parts are called results of the action.

 Example: He buys an ice cream and eats it.

Here, buying an ice cream is seen as an action. Eating the ice cream is seen as enjoyment.

The observer is not the enjoyer since it is not associated with the world. The observed cannot enjoy anything since it is inert.

The fact is that there is nothing called enjoyment. When an ice cream is eaten, one form of food is converted into another form of food. The tongue of the person tastes the ice cream due to the presence of the mind. The mind is also an inert object but it is able to feel the pleasure due to the borrowed consciousness from the observer.

Thus, the non-existent ego is the enjoyer of the benefit of an action. Ego enjoys good experiences and suffers bad experiences.

When we enjoy life, we plant the seed for suffering. Pleasure and pain are two sides of the same coin. Therefore, living life the way we normally do is called bondage to the Eternal Cycle. The cycle of having pleasure and pain is eternal because it continues through many lifetimes.

The action leads to enjoyment and the enjoyment leads to desire. Desire lead to further action. This is bondage.

The observer is not bound because he neither acts nor enjoy.

The observed is not bound because it is inert.

It is already seen that the ego is the doer of the action and the enjoyer of the result and therefore it is bound.

We feel we are bound because we associate ourselves with our ego.

Liberation from the bondage can happen only when we understand the true identity of our ego. The ego exists as a combination of the body/mind complex and the reflection of the consciousness on the mind.

If we associate ourselves as ego then we are caught in the problems of life. If we associate ourselves truly as the observer then we do not have any problems and we are liberated.

Example: The reflection of the sun in the gutter appears to be dirty and non-shining.

This does not affect the sun in anyway. We need to realize that we are the sun and not the gutter.

The ego is a non-entity and does not exist. We give reality to it due to our ignorance.

Example: An uninvited guest will freely move around the wedding hall until both the parties of the marriage start enquiring who that person is.

Similarly, if we divide ourselves as an observer and the observed, there is no place for an ego.
When we lose our ego, we are liberated.

Chapter 13: The Observer and the observed                      
Verse: 21

13.21 Nature is said to be the cause of all material activities and effects, whereas the living entity is the cause of the various sufferings and enjoyments in this world.

Lesson 7: Who is the observer?                         
Session: 246

There are three possible answers to this question depending on the context.

Answer 1: Brahman is the observer.

We will get this answer if we are not considering any context.

Example: The owner of a hotel chain is very hungry and he goes to one of his hotel and orders a meal. Then he finds out that he is not carrying any cash with him. Neither the bearer nor the manager of the hotel recognizes him as the owner.

Who is this person? He is the owner in relation to the hotel chain. He is a customer in the eyes of the manager. Without considering any such context, the answer is ‘He is a human being’.

Similarly, if we do not consider any context, the correct answer to the question who is the observer, is Brahman.

Brahman is the witness who is not involved in any action. Brahman does not enjoy the result of any action. Brahman just witnesses the action.

In the above example, a person who is sitting in the next table is the witness to the event. Brahman is called as a witness because nothing happens in the whole universe without his presence. 

Brahman permits everything to happen. Brahman does not prevent anything from happening. Brahman does not prompt anyone to act or not to act.

Example: TV Screen permits the movie that appears on it. Without the screen, there is no movie. What happens in the movie is not influenced by the TV in anyway. If the villain in the movie attempts to kill the hero, the TV Screen has no say in the event. It neither prompts nor prevents the event. It however permits the action. Without its permission, there is no movie.

Similarly, all the events in the world happen with the permission of Brahman. Brahman does not participate, prompt, prevent but permit everything.

Answer 2: God is the observer

This is the correct answer in the context of the creation of the world. The observer is the intelligence cause of the universe.

Example: The owner of a hotel chain is very hungry and he goes to one of his hotel and orders a meal. Then he finds out that he does not have any money. However, he was provided with a good meal and no bill was given since the manager of the hotel recognized him.

Who is this person? The correct answer will be ‘the owner of the hotel chain’ because the staff in the hotel recognized him and treated him as the owner.

Similarly, if we recognize the role of the observer as the creator of the universe, then we have to answer the question, ‘Who is the observer?’ as God.

God is the provider and protector of the universe. He creates an environment that is appropriate to the accumulated results of the action by all the living beings. At the individual level, he ensures that every living being enjoys the results of their past action.

Answer 3: I am the Observer

This is the correct answer in the context of our body/mind complex.

Example: The owner of a hotel chain is very hungry and he goes to one of his hotel and orders a meal. He pays for the meal after eating and walks out.

Who is this person? The correct answer will be ‘a customer’ in the given context. He did not use his powers as the owner of the hotel chain. This person may have the following thoughts.

“I am a human being. I was hungry and I had food. Others are treating me as a customer. Therefore, let me accept the role ‘customer’. If they had treated me as the owner, I could have behaved like one.”

How can all the three answers be correct?

A woman is seen as daughter, wife, and mother by different people. Similarly, the observer is seen differently depending on the context.

The role of observer appears to be contradictory. How can the observer not do anything, at the same time create the universe, and be part of all the action?

Example: A person says ‘I cannot live with my wife. I need a divorce’. Another person says ‘I cannot live without her. I want to marry her’. It is quite possible that both these people are talking about the same woman.

Similarly, how we view the observer determines whether he does or does not do some action.

We are carried away by the name and form. A rich person is given respect because of his riches or a wise person is revered because of his knowledge. No one sees the human being. Similarly, no one recognizes the true status of the observer.

The true status of the observer is Brahman. Both the other answers ‘God is the observer’ or ‘I am the observer’ are correct only in the given context. In the absolute sense without any context, the only possible answer is Brahman.

Besides, Brahman is absolute reality and God and the individual self are illusion.

Example: A person stands in front of a convex mirror and a concave mirror. There will be two reflections. One will show a huge figure and another, a short figure. Which is correct?

Similarly, the Brahman is seen as God and as an indweller of the individual. Both belong to the plane of illusion. The whole universe is an illusion and therefore both God and the living beings are part of the illusion. Therefore, the correct and only answer to the question, ‘who is the observer’ is Brahman.

We can see this oneness only through the knowledge given in Vedanta and if we see it and understand the three modes of nature, we are liberated from the bondage to the Eternal Cycle as explained by Lord Krishna in the verses 22 to 24

The three modes of the nature will be explained in the next chapter.

Lord Krishna has categorically stated that there is no precondition to liberation. Anyone belonging to any religion/ language can attain liberation by gaining the essence of the knowledge given in Vedanta. Liberation means living this life joyfully. One who understands this knowledge of the observer and the observed as described in Vedanta, even without ever knowing the existence of Vedanta, will be liberated.

Chapter 13: The Observer and the observed             
Verses: 22 – 24

13.22 The living entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three modes of nature. Attachment to the three modes is the cause of birth in superior and inferior births.

13.23 The master of this body is said to be the proximate witness, the supporter, the sustainer, the experiencer, the great lord and the supreme self.

13.24 He who thus understands this Brahman, nature and the living beings as the interaction of the modes of nature is sure to attain liberation. He will not take birth here again, regardless of his present position.

Lesson 8: What is the path and the destination?       
Session: 247 – 249

Lord Krishna gives the summary of the process of gaining the knowledge, the knowledge and the benefit of gaining the knowledge.

Process of gaining the knowledge on the absolute

Bhakthi Yoga is the only path to gain the knowledge of the absolute.

Teaching 126: Bhakthi Yoga comprising of Karma Yoga, Upasana Yoga and Jnana Yoga is the only path to know Brahman

This Bhakthi Yoga is divided into five steps as described below:

Step 1: Karma Yoga
 Instead of working and worshiping, convert the work as worship.
 Do all the prescribed duties as a dedication to God.
 Accept all the results as a gift from God.
 All the actions should be according to Dharma.
 Complete all the duties disregarding likes and dislikes.
 Can do whatever we want as long as they are not Adharma.
 Moderate and avoid over indulgence in sense pleasures.
All of us have the intelligence to discriminate good from the bad. However, this intelligence is blinded by our accumulated preferences (likes and dislikes). Karma Yoga is done for reducing the influence of our likes and dislikes. Once we do Karma Yoga for a length of time, our natural intelligence will be able to function well and show us the limitations of the objects of the world. We will be able to free ourselves from the frenzy of action in our material pursuit. We will be attracted towards God.
Teaching 127: Karma yoga is to dedicate all the physical action to God and accept the results as a gift from God
Then we will be ready for the next step.

Step 2: Upasana Yoga
While Karma Yoga revolves around physical action, Upasana Yoga is about mental action. After completing Karma Yoga, we will be able to sit quietly in a place and spend time on refining our mind.
Teaching 128: Upasana Yoga is pure mental action to refine our mind by aligning the five layers of our personality
Upasana Yoga involves
 Relaxation Meditation
 Concentration Meditation
 Expansion Meditation
 Value Meditation
Upasana Yoga requires a very small portion of our day and therefore it can be commenced while we continue to spend most of our time and energy towards the material pursuit.
Upasana Yoga will refine our mind progressively and it will be ready to receive the knowledge. We will gain complete control over our sense organs and the mind. All our five layers of personality (Physical Layer, Physiological Layer, Psychological Layer, Intellectual Layer and Spiritual Layer) will be aligned.
We will be able to direct our mind to concentrate on what we want it to do for a length of time. Earlier the mind will be absorbed in work only if it likes the work. After Upasana Yoga, we can choose what we want to do and the mind will obey.
Slowly from self-centeredness and family-mindedness, we will move towards thinking about the welfare of the world. Our mind will be expanded to see the vastness of the creation and our minor role in it. We will then be interested in God, the creator of the universe.
When we develop a deep desire to know God, it is time to move from Upasana Yoga to the next step.

Step 3: Jnana Yoga – I (Inquiry of the Holy Scriptures)
The only source that can describe God is our Holy Scriptures. The only way to understand the content of the Holy Scripture is to listen to a competent teacher.
The subject matter of the Vedanta is three fold. They talk about the living beings, the world and the God.
One should systematically study the Vedanta for a length of time under a competent live teacher until the central message is clearly understood. While listening to the teacher we should not filter the message according to our past understanding of the subject. We should be completely open and should not remember or recall what we already know until we complete the process of listening.
When we enter this step, we should be willing to spend more time away from our profession or material pursuit. We can go back to our material pursuit after we complete this step and the next step. Until we complete these two steps, it is important that we dedicate quality time for this spiritual pursuit.
When we understand the central message of Vedanta, we can move on to the next step.

Step 4: Jnana Yoga – II (Introspection on You Are That)
The understanding gained from the Vedanta is not consistent with our experience.
What I understood  What I experience
I am immortal I am mortal
I am joyful I am suffering
I am Brahman I feel I am a limited human being
We need to think, reflect, raise questions, discuss and listen again to gain doubtless knowledge on the central message of Vedanta. We should get firm knowledge on the truth and reconcile the difference between the knowledge from Vedanta and our experience.
Besides, there are many schools of thoughts, philosophies and religions other than Vedanta. We should be clear on why they are all inadequate and our understanding alone reveals the absolute truth.
When we gain firm knowledge, which is signified by absence of thirst for more knowledge, we are ready for the next step.

Step 5: Jnana Yoga III (Inner Transformation)
This final step leads to Joyful Living. Although we have firm knowledge from Vedanta, our accumulated preferences will continue to attract us towards the world. We might know for sure that the world is an illusion but still we may not be able to live in line with this truth. Therefore, we need to do Vedantic Meditation to internalize the knowledge.
Example: Although the preparation of the lemon pickle is complete, the lemon will continue to taste like a lemon and not as lemon pickle if we taste it immediately after preparation. It has to get socked in the oil for a long period before it could taste like lemon pickle.

Similarly, we still have old preferences that influence us on how we see the world. This cannot be changed overnight. Therefore, until the influence of this is reduced one should meditate on the new knowledge.

The new knowledge can over write the accumulated knowledge. Therefore, the accumulated knowledge can be changed. The accumulated impressions cannot be changed but it is automatically burnt down when we gain the knowledge of the absolute.

Therefore, the only remaining task is to change the accumulated preferences, which might take some time depending on how well our mind is refined.

Teaching 129: Jnana Yoga is to gain knowledge that ‘I am Brahman’ through Inquiry, Introspection and Inner Transformation

The knowledge of the absolute

We need to gain complete understanding on the nature of the observer and the observed. We will then see that the world is the result of the interaction between the observer and the observed much similar to a birth of the living being through the union of a male and female.

When a product is born through the interaction of two distinct entities, it is quite possible that we are mistaken about the source of a particular attribute.

Example: Fire is hot but does not have a shape. An iron ball has a shape but it is not hot. When the iron ball is heated up, it will become a fireball. The ball shape does not belong to the fire.

Similarly, the world is born through the interaction between the observer and the observed. The sentiency of the living beings belongs to that of observer and the inert body/mind complex belongs to the observed. Instead of this correct knowledge, we are ignorant and think that we will die. Being born, growing up, and dying are the nature of the body, the observed. The consciousness in us belongs to the observer and it never dies.

We need to have the correct vision of the universe.

Wrong Vision: Seeing the multiple result

If we see the world and do not think how it came about, then our vision is very limited. We are bound to suffer until we gain the right vision.

Right Vision: Seeing the single source

If we understand the true nature of the world, which is illusion our problems are dissolved instantly.

We will see that our body/ mind complex is made up of three elements, Aura, Energy and Matter. All the thoughts, words and actions will be in line with the composition of these three elements. The observer does not do any action. Nor it is the enjoyer of the results of the action. Both the action and enjoyment belongs to a non-existent ego.

We should see that the very same observer appear as multiple living beings and the inert objects in the universe. If we have this right vision, we have the knowledge of the absolute.

Benefits of gaining the absolute knowledge

Lord Krishna says only those who have gained the knowledge of the absolute sees correctly. Others do not see. No one else can hurt our mind. If our mind is hurt, it is its own creation. Once we have the correct vision we stop hurting ourselves. Since the cause of our misery is our attachment, after gaining this knowledge we will no longer be attached to anything in the world.

Example: A plane crash involving the loss of life of many people is just a news item for us until we realize that someone close to us was traveling in that plane.

When we gain the knowledge, we will be able to observe our own body/ mind complex as if it belongs to someone else.

Therefore, we will not have any sufferings in the world and the life will be joyful. We will see the world in the correct perspective that it is a place of enjoyment and not a place for suffering.

Example: A bee sits at the tip of the flower and drinks the nectar. If it sits inside the flower, it will be stuck and then the suffering will start.

Similarly, the world is a lovely place as long as we use it for our entertainment. The moment we start depending on it for our peace, security and happiness we are doomed.

The knowledge of the absolute enables us to see the Brahman, the only reality that appears as the world.
 Example: We create our dream.

Similarly, life is a dream and every individual that we encounter in our life is our own creation. We are not affected by the events in the dream. On gaining the knowledge of the absolute, we will be awakened. We will see life as a dream. It will be like knowing that we are dreaming while we are still dreaming.

Sun illumines everything in the world and it is not affected by the action that is illumined by it. The sun does not cause any action nor does it expect anything in return for illumining the world. Similarly, after gaining the knowledge, we will continue to enliven the body/mind complex that we occupy, but will not have any expectation from the world.

Space accepts and accommodates everything. Construction of a high-rise building does not pose a problem to the space. A bad smell does not pollute the space.

We will behave similar to space. We will accommodate everything that happens in our life. We will never get affected by any of them. We will be liberated. We will have a Joyful Living because our true nature is ever witnessing joy.

This is the benefit of gaining the knowledge of the absolute.

Chapter 13: The Observer and the observed             
Verses: 25 – 35

13.25 Some seekers see the Atman in the mind through meditation. Some others see through the cultivation of knowledge. Still others, through working without desire.

13.26 Not knowing this, some others pursue self-knowledge by hearing from others. Being committed to listening, they also cross over mortality.

13.27 Oh Arjuna, whatever you see in existence, both moving and unmoving, is only the combination of the field of activities and the knower of the field.

13.28 One who sees the Brahman who dwells alike in all beings and who is imperishable among perishables alone really sees.

13.29 One who sees the Atman in every living being and equal everywhere does not degrade himself by his mind. Thus, he attains the supreme goal.

13.30 One who can see that all activities are performed by the body, which is created of material nature, and sees that the self does nothing, actually sees.

13.31 When one sees the diversity of beings to be based on the one Brahman and originated from that one Brahman alone becomes Brahman.

13.32 Being birth less and attributeless, this Atman is changeless. Though dwelling in the body, it neither acts nor is affected, Oh Arjuna.

13.33 Just as the all-pervading space is not affected due to its subtle nature, so also the Brahman present in everybody is not affected by it.

13.34 Oh Arjuna, as the sun alone illuminates this entire universe, so does the living entity, one within the body, illuminate the entire body by consciousness.

13.35 One who knowingly sees this difference between the body and the owner of the body and can understand the process of liberation from this bondage, attains Brahman.

Lesson 9: Three Perceptions              
Session: 250

Lord Krishna gives the vision of the Vedanta from three different perspectives.

Perception 1: (Described in Part I – Chapter 1 to 6)

1. I am the Atman. I am eternal and all pervading
2. I am the only source of everlasting security, non-diminishing happiness and undisturbed peace.
3. Through my mere presence, I give life to this body/mind complex and through this body/mind complex I experience the world
4. I am not affected by any event that happens in the external world, which includes my body/mind complex.
5. By forgetting my real nature, I convert my life as a struggle and by remembering by real nature, I convert the life as an entertainment.

Perception 2: (Described in Part II – Chapter 7 to 12)

1. Brahman is Changeless, Attributeless and Independent principle whose nature is consciousness, eternal and joyful.
2. Illusion is changing all the time, has many attributes and depends on Brahman for existence. It is made up of Aura, Energy and Matter.
3. Both Brahman and Illusion do not have a beginning.
4. Illusion is impregnated by Brahman and to these parents the universe is born.
5. The entire creation has inherited the properties of both these parents.
6. The illusion together with Brahman is God. God is both the intelligence cause and material cause of the creation. In other words, there is nothing but God. Every action that is being done by all the living beings is God’s will.
7. The body/mind complex is part of illusion and it is enliven by the Brahman.
8. By claiming God’s property as our own, we convert life as a struggle and by surrendering back our ego to God, we can convert life as an entertainment.

Perception 3: (Described in Part III – Chapter 13 to 18)

1. Atman is Brahman
2. The body/mind complex is illusion
3. The ego does not exist and it is a mere reflection of the consciousness.
4. The non-existent ego is the doer of all actions and enjoyer of the results.
5. By thinking, ‘I am the ego’ we convert life as a struggle and by knowing, ‘I am Brahman’, we can convert life as an entertainment.

Thus, all these three perspectives will lead us to Joyful Living. 

A comparison of the three perspectives is given below:

Vision of Vedanta Perception I
given in Part I
(Chapter 1 to 6) Perception  II given in Part II
(Chapter 7 to 12) Perception III given in Part III
(Chapter 13 to 18)

Suggested Path to
Joyful Living
 Karma Yoga/
Upasana Yoga Bhakthi Yoga Jnana Yoga

Important requirement
 Self-effort and will power/ Free will God’s Grace Wisdom that free will is  God’s grace

Description of the person who has reached the goal
 Joyous Person
(Ref: Chapter 2) Pious Person
(Ref: Chapter 12: Liberation through Bhakthi Yoga) Wise Person
(Ref: Chapter 14)

Final target to enable
Joyful Living
 Self-Knowledge Knowledge of God Knowledge of
“You Are That”

Notes on this comparison

1. Bhakthi Yoga = Karma Yoga + Upasana Yoga + Jnana Yoga
2. Free Will and God’s Grace are two different ways of describing the same concept.
3. Joyous Person, Pious Person and Wise Person are three different names describing the person who has reached the destination
4. The subject matter for Self-Knowledge and Knowledge of God is identical. One can search the external world for its creator or enquire internally, ‘Who am I?’ Both these pursuits will lead to the understanding of self, world and God. When these pursuits succeed, the result is Joyful Living.
5. Thus, the only goal of life for all human beings is to reach this destination of Joyful Living.
6. The only path to this goal is Bhakthi Yoga, which includes Karma Yoga, Upasana Yoga and Jnana Yoga.

If we understand this vision of Vedanta, as explained by Lord Krishna, we will end all our sufferings in one stroke and life will be joyful forever.

Although Lord Krishna has explained this vision from three different perspectives, not everyone can understand it. The capability to understand this vision depends on the proportion in which the three elements, Aura, Energy and Matter constitute our mind as explained below.

1. Brahman is the seed giving father of the creation
2. Illusion is the mother comprising of Aura, Energy and Matter.
3. The creation is born for these parents. The living beings in the creation reflect the consciousness of the father Brahman. Their body/mind complex is made up of the inert object, belonging to the mother Illusion.
4. Looking at the body/mind complex, we assume that we are created only by our mother, the illusion. We are ignorant of the contribution of our father in our existence. We cannot understand that we are the consciousness unless the composition of our mind is changed.
5. Our mind is composed of certain proportion of Aura, Energy and Matter. We need to make it Aura dominant in order to perceive the truth. This can be achieved through the following steps.

Step 1: Understand the nature of each of the three elements
Step 2: See how each of these elements bind a person to eternal misery
Step 3: Identify the dominance of a particular element
Step 4: Explore the use of each element in reaching our goal
Step 5: Go beyond the influence of all the three elements.
Step 6: Gain the advantages of going beyond all the three elements.

6. In the wrong proportion, our ego is growing and becoming strong making us vulnerable to suffering.
7. In the right proportion, where Aura is dominating, we will be able to surrender our ego and merge with God. Then we can transcend the effects of three elements.
8. If we go beyond the influence of the three elements then we will be able to understand the vision of Vedanta and thereby achieve Joyful Living.

Thus, for those who cannot comprehend the core teaching, ‘You Are That’, Lord Krishna gives simpler lessons, based on the three elements, in this chapter.

Teaching 130: Brahman is the seed giving father of the creation

Teaching 131: Illusion, comprising of three elements, Aura, Energy and Matter, is the mother of the creation

Chapter 14: Analysis of the three elements          
Verses: 01 – 04

14.1 Lord Krishna said, Again I shall declare to you this supreme wisdom, the best of all knowledge, knowing which all the sages have attained the supreme perfection.

14.2 By becoming fixed in this knowledge, one can attain Me. Thus established in Me, one is not born at the time of creation nor suffer at the time of dissolution.

14.3 The Maya is My womb. I place the seed in that. Thereupon takes place the origination of all beings, Oh Arjuna.

14.4 It should be understood that all living beings, Oh Arjuna, are made possible by birth in this material nature, and that I am the seed-giving father.

Lesson 10: The Observed – AEM           
Session: 251 – 253

Energy is matter in motion and matter is stationery energy. The total quantum of energy and matter in the universe is constant. Energy or matter can neither be created nor destroyed. They can be changed from one form to another.

The universe is made up of energy and matter. The living beings in the universe have one more element in addition to Energy and Matter. This is called Aura.

Thus, we see that the whole creation is made up of three elements, namely Aura, Energy and Matter.

Since the finished product, universe, is composed of these three elements, we can derive that the raw material for creating the universe is also composed of these three elements.

Illusion is the raw material and the whole universe is created in the presence of Brahman. This process of creation is very similar to the creation of our dream.

1. When we sleep, dream is created without any effort. Similarly, Brahman creates this universe without any effort.

2. There is no dream without the dreamer. Similarly, there is no universe, without Brahman.

3. There are many objects in the dream, some of them are inert, and some are living beings. All the objects in the dream are nothing but thoughts in our mind. Similarly, the entire creation is Illusion. Illusion is the power of Brahman to dream.

4. We associate ourselves with one of the living being in our dream although everything in our dream is mere thoughts. We say, ‘I talked to my neighbor in my dream’. In the dream, there is no difference between the neighbor and me. Both are our own creation. Similarly, the consciousness of the Brahman enlivens some of the objects as living beings. Each human being assumes that he is an independent entity while the truth is everyone is Brahman.

5. The dream objects are created by thoughts. The objects of the world are created by Illusion. We have already derived that the Illusion is made up of Aura, Energy and Matter. This derivation is confirmed by Vedanta.

6. All these three elements are essentially intertwined in a living being and it is not possible to eliminate any one of them. The proportion in which the combine to make various living beings vary. While both living beings and inert objects are made up of these three elements, only living beings have the required quantum of Aura to reflect the consciousness aspect of Brahman.

7. The proportion of Aura, Energy and Matter in which the mind of a human being is made up of determines his personality.

8. Our problems in our dream are imaginary. Our problems in the real world are part of the illusion. Only when our mind becomes Aura dominant, we can realize this fact. Then we are awakened while the dream of life continues.

Lord Krishna describes the nature of Aura, Energy and Matter as below:
Aura Energy Matter
Power to know Power to act Power to remain in inaction/ Ignorance
Spiritual Pursuit to gain happiness Material Pursuit to gain happiness Wants happiness but does not want to make any efforts for getting it
Uses Sense Organs (Eyes, Ears, Nose etc) predominantly Uses Action Organs (Hands, legs etc) predominantly Withdrawing the use of all the organs
Focus is to learn more Focus is to do/ act more Focus is to rest more
Achievement for personal satisfaction Achievement for name, fame, wealth, power etc Not keen on achievement
Can spend considerable time concentrating on listening, learning etc Can spend considerable time concentrating on doing physical work Can spend considerable time in sleeping and taking rest
Cannot run around Cannot sit in a place Cannot do any work
Required for doing Jnana Yoga and Upasana Yoga Required for doing Karma Yoga Required for rejuvenating
Will wait for required information to take any decision  Will take decisions without waiting for all inputs Will wait indefinitely by postponing the decision making task without any reason
Immune to negative emotions Susceptible to negative emotions Prone to negative emotions
Can give clear knowledge Act as a deterrent to knowledge Gives wrong knowledge

Each of the elements has a role to play with both positive and negative aspects. The proportion in which these three elements are present, determines our personality. Obviously, this varies person to person. In addition, within the same person, the dominance of each element varies with time. For example, the early morning a person will be Aura dominant. Soon Energy will take over. Afternoon, it is the time for Matter dominance. Similarly, a newborn baby is mostly under Matter domination. When the baby becomes two years old, it will come under the influence of Energy domination. During old age, people in general are under Aura domination.

Therefore, it is essential for us to understand the nature of each element so that we can understand our personality.

Teaching 132: We are good or bad depending on the composition of AEM

Chapter 14: Analysis of the three elements         
Verses: 05 – 09

14.5 Material nature consists of the three modes--Aura, Energy and Matter. They fasten the changeless Atman with the body and he becomes conditioned by these modes.

14.6 Oh Arjuna, among them Aura is bright and harmless due to its purity. It binds one by causing attachment to pleasure and by causing attachment to knowledge.

14.7 Oh Arjuna, understand Energy to be of the nature of passion and to be the cause of desire and attachment. It binds by causing attachment to activity.

14.8 Oh Arjuna, understand Matter to be born of ignorance and to be the deluder of all living beings. It binds by causing negligence, indolence and sleep.

14.9 The mode of Aura binds one to pleasure. Energy binds one to action. Matter binds one to negligence by veiling the discriminatory power.

Lesson 11: Factors that bind us 
Session: 254 – 256

Aura, Energy and Matter together is the cause of binding us to our body/mind complex. They bind us jointly and severally. Every mind is made up all the three elements and each element bind us according to its nature.

Teaching 133: Aura, Energy and Matter (AEM) together binds us

From Matter dominance, it is difficult to move on to Energy dominance because Matter binds us.

Example: A person spends most of the time sleeping. He does not do any work and spends the life with a laid-back attitude.

This is the typical nature of Matter dominance and it is difficult to motivate such persons into action. Matter binds them in such a way they do not move up to Energy dominance.

From Energy dominance, it is difficult to move on to Aura dominance because Energy binds us.

Example: A person is a workaholic and spends most of the time at the work place. He brings work home too and do not have any time for doing meditation or prayer. He cannot listen to Holy Scriptures.

This is the typical nature of Energy dominance and it is difficult to motivate such persons into seeking knowledge. Energy binds them to action in such a way that they do not move up to Aura dominance.

From Aura dominance, it is difficult to move beyond the influence of any dominance because Aura binds us.

Example: A person spends most of the time praying and serving poor people. He does not want to get liberation.

This is the typical nature of Aura dominance and it is difficult to motivate such persons into giving up knowledge seeking life. Aura binds them in such a way they do not move up to become independent.

People like the environment to be conducive to the element that is currently dominant in them. For example, young people (Energy dominant) want loud music and fast beat dance. The old people (Aura dominant) want soft music in praise of the god. Besides, the dominance of a particular element is not fixed in anyone. It keeps changing all the time. For example, in general people will be Aura dominant in the morning and Matter dominant after the lunchtime.

If the environment is not conducive to the dominant element, they get upset. It is not possible to create an environment to suit the composition of AEM at all times. The only solution is to go beyond the influence of AEM so that we live joyfully without depending on our environment. We will still prefer a certain environment but this is an optional requirement and not a necessity.

Symptoms showing the binding element
Aura Energy Matter
Peaceful and calm mind Agitated mind Wavering mind
Soft words and slow talk Harsh words with speed Silence
Light Music Fast Music No Music
Planned Action Frenzied Action Laziness/ procrastination
Learning  Doing Ignorance/ Inaction
Systematic and orderly action aiming at perfection Result oriented action Action limited to the necessity
Internal Happiness  External Happiness Sleep
Satisfied with current possessions Wishing to get new things Not satisfied with the possessions
No desires for external objects due to awareness of the limitation of the objects of the world Desire for external objects is the driving factor for more action No desires for external objects either due to ignorance or to avoid action
Purity and cleanliness  Result oriented purity and cleanliness Impure and unclean
Willingness to share everything Grabbing tendency with  Possessiveness Waiting for gifts
Careful  Calculative Carelessness
Natural surrounding Artificial surrounding Not aware of the surrounding
Not interested to earn more than the requirement Wants unlimited money Neither wants to earn nor wants to spend
Spiritual Pursuit  Material Pursuit No pursuit
Knowledge Action Ignorance/ Inaction

Wants to join a new course to learn more Wants to start a new venture to earn more Does not want to start anything new.

Thus, each element binds us in a particular way and expects a suitable environment.

All the three elements bind us with our body. We do not realize our true nature as Brahman, since these three elements make us believe that we are the body/mind complex. It is the nature of Illusion to shield the truth and project the false as truth. Therefore, we are bound to the Illusion (body/mind complex and the world)

In order to free ourselves from the control of Illusion, we need to analyze and understand the nature of each of the elements of the Illusion. It is like trying to loosen the knot by separating each strand of the rope. Thereafter, we can see how these three elements can be used for our advantage.

Chapter 14: Analysis of the three elements         
Verses: 10 – 13

14.10 Sometimes Energy becomes prominent, defeating Aura and Matter, Oh Arjuna. And sometimes Aura defeats Energy and Matter, and at other times Matter defeats Aura and Energy. In this way there is always competition for supremacy.

14.11 The manifestations of the mode of Aura can be experienced when all the sense organs are illuminated by knowledge.

14.12 Oh Arjuna, when there is an increase in the mode of Energy, the symptoms of greed, uncontrollable desire, restlessness, and craving develop.

14.13 Oh Arjuna, when there is an increase in the mode of Matter, dullness, inaction, negligence and delusion are manifested.

Lesson 12: Using the Illusion     
Session: 257 – 258

Lord Krishna suggests that we use the Illusion to gain liberation from it. It is not possible for us to go beyond Illusion. It is like expecting an imaginary person of our dream to step out of the dream into the real world. We need to understand the three elements of Illusion and use each one of them appropriately in our path to Joyful Living.

By nature, the proportion of AEM will keep changing.

Example: A flame in the candle has to keep moving and changing in order to be present. It may appear red, yellow or orange.

Similarly, the AEM in our mind will continue to be present and the proportion in which they are mixed will continue to change. At a particular time, one of the three will dominate the other two and we need to understand how to bring them to an ideal proportion.

The universe is made up of AEM and the division between the observer and the observed is an artificial creation.

 Example: There are many states in the country.

The borders between the states exist only in maps. The land is one continuous earth mass and there is no natural demarcation separating the states. Similarly, there is no real difference between the observer and the observed. However, due to ignorance, we say, ‘I see him and therefore I am different from him’. The fact is both are illusions that appear in the dream of Brahman. One who has the right proportion of AEM will be able to comprehend this truth.

Everything in the universe is made up of AEM, the interaction between the various objects in the creation includes the actions and results of the actions of the living beings. Only a pure mind can gain this knowledge so that it is liberated.

Our minds are generally impure due to our accumulated preferences. We need to do Karma Yoga and Upasana Yoga to make it pure and then gain knowledge on the truth using Jnana Yoga.

For doing Karma Yoga, we need to leverage the positive aspects of the Energy Element.

For doing Upasana Yoga, we need to leverage on the positive aspects of the Aura and Matter elements.

For doing Jnana Yoga, we need to leverage on the positive aspects of the Aura Element.

Thus, by using the positive aspects of the three elements we can achieve liberation. We suffer in life because we give reality to the illusion. Once we gain the knowledge of the truth, we understand that the life is an illusion and therefore life becomes joyful.

It is possible for us to control the proportion in which AEM constitutes our mind. For example, if we eat full stomach in the morning, we are inviting Matter Element to dominate us for the next two hours. If we want to be active, we have to seek Energy Element by having a light breakfast.

Thus, our action shapes the composition of AEM in our mind. The proportion of AEM, then determines the quality of our actions. If we are Matter dominant after a heavy breakfast, we may not do our work efficiently. Therefore, the results of the action will be substandard. The results of the actions, determines our future environment. Our environment facilitates our further action. If we create a hostile environment, it will be more difficult for us to achieve the desired result, compared to functioning in an environment that is conducive.

Thus, we create our future through the right proportion of AEM. It is like a pole valet. A pole is required for jumping high to cross the barrier. Once sufficient height is gained, one should leave the pole to cross over. Similarly, we should use the AEM and then live beyond it so that life is joyful.

Teaching 134: We need to use AEM to gain freedom

We need to use the Energy Element supported by Aura, to do Karma Yoga so that the first step is performed through physical action. This is similar to running with the pole prior to jumping.

We need to use the Matter Element supported by Aura, to do Upasana Yoga so that the second step is performed by purifying the mind. This is similar to mentally focusing and concentrating on the jump.

We need to use the Aura Element supported by Energy, to do Jnana Yoga so that the final step is performed to go beyond the influence of AEM. This is similar to jumping and then leaving the pole at the right time.

Theoretically, it may sound that it is very easy to change our personality through the right actions described above. However, in practice, it takes long time and depending on where we are, it takes many lifetimes to reach the goal of going beyond the influence of AEM. Our accumulated preferences and impressions do not permit us to change the proportion of AEM overnight. We need to continuously work and move forward in our journey towards Joyful Living.

After death, the journey will continue from where we left. This does not mean that we will not be rewarded for our efforts. It is like drinking water to quench our thirst. Every sip of water we drink helps us. Our mind will become progressively matured. Thus, we can see benefits of our efforts, within our current lifetime.

We should assess our current personality and then move forward through the steps described below.
Step 1: Matter Dominance (Minimum action and minimum knowledge just sufficient for surviving)
Step 2: Matter Dominance supported by Energy (Action to follow the religious rituals to fulfill selfish requirements)
Step 3: Energy Dominance supported by Matter (Lots of selfish action to gain property, wealth and such for self and family)
Step 4: Energy Dominance supported by Aura (Lots of selfless action to gain name, fame, recognition and such)
Step 5: Aura Dominance supported by Energy (Less action and more reading, listening, thinking and reflecting)
Step 6: Aura Dominance (Minimum action for survival and more effort for gaining steady knowledge)
Step 7: Beyond dominance of any element (Less or More action depending on the accumulated preferences)

We should consciously involve in required action to move forward through these steps and reach the final step of liberation.

Suggestions for actions
1. The books we read, the company we keep and the places we visit influence our personality.
2. The types of entertainment we indulge in limit our progress. Drinking alcohol, gambling and such activities severely restrict our progress.
3. Extraverted  activities increases Energy
4. Introverted activities increases Aura and reduces Energy
5. Moving away from selfish actions to selfless action will increase the Aura Element and reduce Matter Element.
6. Taking up new projects voluntarily will increase the Energy Element and reduces the Matter Element.

Benefits of the actions
1. Increase in the Aura Element increases calmness in mind. One will feel more relaxed. Peacefulness and contentment are the results of increase of Aura Element.
2. Increase in the Energy Element will make one feel dynamic and energetic. Great achievements in life are possible results of Energy Element. Name, fame, power, position, wealth and such material success often brought about by the Energy Element. However, after gaining sufficient success one should not continue to be bound by Energy. If they do so, it will lead them to sorrow and suffering. Energy dominant people slowly tend to get impatient because they want to achieve more in less time. This will lead to intolerance and anger. It may possibly lead to violence in thoughts, words and action. Therefore, prior to desires becomes greed one should abandon Energy Dominance and try to become Aura Dominant.

Beyond dominance of any element
AEM binds us to our ego. We think that we are the body/mind complex due to the influence of AEM. AEM drives the ego into action to create an environment that is conducive. Thus, ego becomes a powerful doer and enjoyer. Until we go beyond the influence of AEM, the ego will continue to suffer since it is not always possible to have a desirable environment.

Ego strengthens the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. The truth is just the opposite. There is nothing that belongs to me and the word ‘I’ should refer to Atman.

When we increase the Aura Element, we will progress in Jnana Yoga. It is the process of separating the ego from the Atman. When we drop our ego, the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘mine’ will go. It is like living in the same house after selling it. A crack in the wall will not hurt us anymore. It is not our problem since we have already sold the house.

Similarly, if we surrender back everything to God, our ego will be weakened and we can let go of all our possessions. We are under the wrong impression that we are responsible for our future. The truth is God runs our life. However, our ego is so strong it will not let go due to the wrong proportion of AEM.

Example: It is very difficult to pluck a mango, which is not fully ripened. Similarly, unless our ego is fully ripened, it will not let go of the possessions.

Until we make this complete surrender, we will continue to suffer because our ego is wrongly assuming that it is the doer and it is the enjoyer of the fruits of action. Therefore, the focus is to bring the composition of Aura, Energy and Matter to the right proportion and then go beyond their influence.

Teaching 135: Only fully ripened ego can be surrendered to God

It is natural for the nature to keep changing since the very process of projection of Illusion is through change.

Example: Continuous movement in light creates an illusion of movie on the screen. If there is bright, white light on the screen there is no movie.

Similarly, the AEM by nature is always changing. Therefore, the entire creation is in constant movement. There is nothing in the world that is permanent or changeless. If the ego escapes the grip of AEM it will see that change in the environment is natural. One will no longer complain that summer is hot or winter is cold. Old age is a natural phenomenon and not construed as a problem.

There  will be no more sufferings for those who go beyond the influence of AEM. While they are still bound by the changes in the life, they have become wise to see them in the right perspective.

A wise person does not give reality to the events in the life. A dream tiger cannot harm the person sleeping on the bed. Similarly, a wise person knows that his real identity is Brahman and he is no longer affected by the changes in life. Others are still under the influence of AEM and they give the status of reality to the illusion.

Thus, one should use AEM and go beyond it and become wise.

Chapter 14: Analysis of the three elements         
Verses: 14 – 20

14.14 When one dies in the mode of Aura, he attains to the pure higher planets.

14.15 When one dies in the mode of Energy, he takes birth amidst those who are attached to action; and when he dies in the mode of Matter, he is born in the wombs of the deluded

14.16 By acting in the mode of Aura, one becomes purified. Works done in the mode of Energy result in sorrow and actions performed in the mode of Matter result in ignorance.

14.17 From the mode of Aura, real knowledge develops; from the mode of Energy, greed develops; and from the mode of Matter, negligence, delusion and ignorance develop.

14.18 Those situated in the mode of Aura gradually go upward to the higher planets; those in the mode of Energy live on the earthly planets; and those in the mode of Matter go down to the hellish worlds.

14.19 When the seer understands that the doer to be none other than these modes of nature and knows Brahman is above all these modes, he attains My nature.

14.20 Having gone beyond these three modes, which are the cause of rebirth, a person becomes free from birth, death, old age and attains immortality.

Lesson 13: Description of a Wise Person               
Session: 259

After listening to Lord Krishna, Arjuna seeks few clarifications on the wise person who has risen above the influence of AEM. Lord Krishna provides the explanation and concludes this chapter.

Indications to identify a Wise Person
The Wise Person is one who understands the truth and no longer thinks that he is the ego. He is impartial and can treat his own body/mind complex or family objectively. He is not affected by the events of the world. Everyone in the world has objectivity as long as the event does not concern them directly.

Example: An earthquake in the other side of the earth is a news item and everyone views it objectively. It becomes a disaster only when our own family or properties are affected by it.

A Wise Person remains equally objective whether it happens to him or to others.

A Wise Person is not affected by the status of his own mind because he understands the nature of mind. He has distanced himself from his own mind.

It is a shift in identification. While being an Aura dominant person, he used to identify himself as his ego. After crossing the influence of AEM, he identifies himself as Brahman. This shift in self-identification enables him to accept old age, sickness, death and other sufferings of the world as part of nature. He is not affected by any problem in life. He remains as a witness to his own life. He lives joyfully.

It is impossible to identify a Wise Person because the external behavior will vary depending on the personality. He will behave like any other Aura dominant person. Therefore, the indicator given above by Lord Krishna can be used to only for self-measurement.

As long as we have attachment to the body/mind complex, we should put effort to correct ourselves and train the mind to become steady on the knowledge. When we have sufficient training, we will be able to distance ourselves from our mind.

The behavior of the Wise Person
Wise Person is one who knows that he is different from his own body/mind complex. This knowledge is not shaken by the events of the world. Even a death of a near and dear one or a serious illness to himself will not upset his balance.

There are no surprises or shocking events for him for he knows that all the events and the environment is the result of his own past actions. He trusts in God to do a perfect job of matching the results with the actions of the individual.

Whatever happens to him or others are perfectly in order and in line with the past actions. Therefore, there are no rights or wrong events.

He is aware that every person he meets in this life, including his friends and relatives are doing so to provide him experiences in line with his past actions. Therefore, he does not wait for a particular experience nor wish to get away from anyone.

He will do whatever is to be done as demanded by the situation without getting affected by it. He will be calm and quiet, irrespective of the thoughts in the mind.

The sense organs provide the first set of thoughts depending on the inputs received from the external world.

 Example: Someone shouts, ‘You are a fool’.

A thought corresponding to these words are formed in the mind. There is no difference with respect to formation of this thought in the mind of a Wise Person. Like any other human being, his mind receives this sound through the ears and converts it as a thought.

However, the second sets of thoughts are quite different. People, who are under the influence of AEM, will be affected in line with the dominance.

Matter dominant people may not even understand the implication of these words and may even accept that it is a statement of fact.

Energy dominant people will be greatly affected by these words. He may shout back or react according to the situation.

Aura dominant people will understand why such words are spoken and will address the root cause. They also will be affected.

In case of the Wise Person, he knows that the comment does not concern him. The word ‘you’ in the statement, ‘you are a fool’ refers to the mind of the Wise Person. Since the Wise Person is not his mind, he is not affected.

Thus, the second set of thoughts that follows the first set of thoughts determine how one behaves or reacts to this statement. A Wise Person does not think that the statement refers to him. However, his response will be very similar to that of an Aura dominant person.

He may appear to be a careless person to outsiders, since he remains unperturbed by any event.

He sees all the transactions in the world as the normal change that happens as a part of creation. He is aware that everything is in a constant state of flux and will not have any expectation on the outcome. He knows that he can never know what the future holds but he is not bothered. This is so because he is just a witness to the events of the world and nothing can affect him.

He sees equality in everyone and treats everyone appropriately.

He is happy in himself. His own body/mind complex is a luxury to him. He depends on the world for survival and does not depend on anyone or anything for his happiness and peace. He will be always situated in Brahman and never in his body/mind complex.

Method of becoming a Wise Person
One becomes wise progressively by crossing all the prescribed steps. All the living beings have accumulated varied preferences, impressions and knowledge during the infinite number of previous births.

Preferences bind them to the world through desires. Desire is the cause of action. Action further strengthens the preferences. This is an Eternal Cycle and it is impossible to come out of this cycle except through grace of God/ will power.

The escape route from this Eternal Cycle is to do good actions/ perform the rituals prescribed in Vedas. This increases the positive impressions and they in turn provide a favorable environment for escaping from the Eternal Cycle.

The favorable environment means opportunity and proper guidance in gaining the right knowledge. When we gain the right knowledge then we have the potential to become wise.

Knowledge overpowers preferences and eliminates the effects of the accumulated impressions. This knowledge helps people to move through Matter dominance, Energy dominance and Aura dominance. Finally, the go beyond the influence of the AEM.

Since the effect of accumulated preferences and impressions is strong, the process of liberation is long drawn. It cannot be expected that everyone can gain the required knowledge for liberation in one birth. Therefore, the only method to become a Wise Person is to follow the Holy Scriptures as described by competent teachers. When we will become wise depends on our current status and the effort that we are willing to put in.

Bhakthi Yoga is the only path to reach God. One has to begin Bhakthi Yoga by demonstrating the love for God and serve him. Such actions of following the rituals will make a Matter dominant person into an Energy dominant person. Then one has to do work as worship. This will purify his mind. Then he has to develop the ability to concentrate and expand the mind by meditating on his chosen personal god. By this time, he would have moved on to become an Aura dominated person and ready to seek the true knowledge on God.

When he gains the true knowledge of Brahman through enquiry, he becomes Brahman himself. He thus realizes his natural state of being immortal, joyful and changeless.

Thus, Bhakthi Yoga enables one to become wise.

Chapter 14: Analysis of the three elements         
Verses: 21 – 27

14.21 Arjuna inquired: Oh my Lord, with what characteristics does a person who is beyond these three modes appear? What is his conduct? And how does he go beyond the modes of nature?

14.22-25 The Blessed Lord said: He who does not hate illumination, attachment and delusion when they are present, nor longs for them when they disappear; who is seated like one unconcerned, being situated beyond these material reactions of the modes of nature, who remains firm, knowing that the modes alone are active; who regards alike pleasure and pain, and looks on a clod, a stone and a piece of gold with an equal eye; who is wise and holds praise and blame to be the same; who is unchanged in honor and dishonor, who treats friend and foe alike, who has abandoned all the result oriented activities, such a man is said to have transcended the modes of nature.

14.26 One who engages in activities with full consciousness of Brahman, who does not fall down in any circumstance, at once transcends the modes of material nature and thus becomes Brahman.

14.27 And I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is the constitutional position of ultimate happiness, and which is immortal, imperishable and eternal.