Lesson 4: Facts from the Scriptures – II
Session: D05 – D06
Statement 8: God created the universe according to my specifications
God visualizes the past deeds of the living beings and creates an appropriate universe as an illusion for their enjoyment/ suffering. All our actions will bring about appropriate results sooner or later and the universe is created for our enjoyment/suffering depending on our past good/ bad actions.
Example: To build a house two key parties are required: Owner and the contractor. Both of them jointly construct the house and either of them cannot do it alone. The owner does not have the knowledge/ skill to build the house and the contractor does not have the motivation or resources to build the house.
The owner contributes two important things towards the construction of the house
The desire to build the house with a specific design (Without which the house will not be constructed)
The money required for the construction (Without which the house cannot be constructed)
The contractor constructs the house in line with the owner’s desire and within the constraints of the budget. The owner may desire to have a swimming pool in the house but if he does not have enough money, the contractor will have no means to provide the same.
Similarly, the universe is created jointly by me and God. I do not know how to build the world so I use the service of the God to build it. God does not have any desire or means to create the universe. So he is waiting for the following from my side.
My desires, without which I will not be born, decide what sort of world I will get.
The accumulated results of my good / bad actions in the past are the equivalent of money using which I demand that a world is created for me.
God creates the universe that suits my desire within the budget allocated by me. I may desire to live in a world of comforts but if I do not have enough accumulated good actions I will not get it.
The universe is just like a big apartment complex. There is infinite number of living beings (who exists eternally) who wants to enjoy the fruits of their past actions. Therefore, they desire to create a universe. God has the know how to build such a universe that meets their requirements.
Each living being gets an environment within the world that suits its budget. One could be born to a millionaire or to a beggar depending on the past actions. In the same apartment complex, there are single room apartments and five bedroom apartments. Similarly, there are many variations in the level of comforts within the world. Each one of the living beings gets what it desires limited only by the self-imposed constraint of good deeds.
God using the power of illusion visualizes the desires and takes account of the actions of all the living beings and at appropriate time creates the universe, sustains it for a specific period (allowing a subset of living beings to be born during that period) and dissolves it. It is just like the day and night cycle.
We get up from our sleep precisely for continuing our experience (pleasure and pain) as desired by us and as supported by the result of our past actions.
Similarly, the universe is created by God as desired by us. Though it is a joint effort of God and me, I am fully responsible for the creation. God delivers the universe exactly as desired and ordered by us. There is absolutely no variation between the specification and actual delivery since God does not have any internal agenda. In addition he is omniscient/omnipotent and therefore fully capable of doing a good job.
Example: The owner is fully responsible for the quality, design and construction of the house if the contractor did a perfect job.
Thus, I am wholly responsible for God’s creation, which I experience. The life as I experience is the result of my decision to use my accumulated balance of results (of my actions) to fulfill my desire.
Validation of the facts:
Based on the information from the Scriptures, we need to re-examine the facts with which we started this investigation.
Modified Fact 1: We exist eternally. We are not part of the creation.
Modified Fact 2: Our sense organs and our body/mind is part of the creation.
Modified Hypothesis: The world around me is an illusion. [This cannot be validated because the mind which is supposed to validate is part of the illusion. Therefore, we need to proceed with our investigation assuming that this is a fact. Then we need to analyze the implication of the facts. By validating the implications we can either deduce or dismiss the modified hypothesis. If the implications are correct then world has to be an illusion. Else, it is not.]
Lesson 5: Implication of the facts – I
Session: D07 – D08
Statement 9: The world around me is custom made for me by God.
The universe is created by God according to the specifications given by the living beings.
God creates the universe consisting of inert matter using the matter dominant part of AEM.
Then the proportion of matter component is reduced progressively and the proportion of energy component is increased correspondingly resulting in various forms of life forms. Unlike the matter component, the energy component has the power to reflect the consciousness aspect of ONE.
Example: Universe is like a flat in an apartment complex. The living space in the apartment complex represent the living beings and the bricks/roof etc are represent the inert objects in the universe
There are four types of living beings in the world.
Depending on the quantum of the energy component, the life forms are classified as follows:
Earth born living beings (Plant kingdom)
[Only Physical and Physiological Layers are active.]
Moisture born living beings (Fungus/ virus etc)
[Physical and Physiological Layers are active. Initial stage of development of Psychological Layer]
Egg born living beings (Birds)
[Physical, Physiological and Psychological Layers are active]
Womb born living beings (Mammals)
[Physical, Physiological and Psychological Layers are active. Intelligence Layer is in the various stages of development among the various species. In human beings Intelligence Layer is fully active at six different levels of intelligence (details in the Module E)
Thus, my physical body is inert matter created by God for my use. I start using this physical body and due to my Delusion, I forget my real nature and assume that I am the body.
Statement 10: I am ONE but I am deluded.
Due to the Delusion, I believe that I am made up of three components
My real nature is ONE (This is the substratum of everything in the creation including God, living beings and all the inert objects in the world.). However, due to Delusion, I see myself as a constitution of the following THREE components:
1. Physical Body (This component is used just for one lifetime).
2. Subtle Body (This can reflect ONE. All the living beings in the world have a subtle body that is created through the energy dominant illusion of ONE)
3. Reflection of ONE in the Subtle Body [The reflection is not independent of the reflecting medium (Subtle Body) and the original (ONE).]
When we say ‘the soul is departed’, we mean that the 2nd and 3rd components (Subtle Body together with the Reflection of ONE) have left the physical body. ONE does not ‘leave’ on death because it is not limited by time, space and object.
It is not possible to separate the reflecting medium and the reflection. Moreover, reflection presupposes the presence of the original. Since original is always present and the reflection appears (for perception) as and when the reflecting medium is functional, we see living beings only when the subtle body is housed in a physical body.
The illusion has two powers: Projection and Shielding. Using the first power, God creates the universe. With the second power, the presence of ONE is shielded and makes me believe that I am a combination of Physical body and life. Unless I am taught systematically, I will never know that I am ONE.
Example: If a cat sees itself on the mirror it will think that it is another cat. This is because the cat is not intelligent enough to know that the reflection is not real. Similarly, human beings, without proper education, assume the reflection of ONE is real. Therefore, we see multiple living beings (reflections) and do not see the original ONE, which is non-dual.
While ONE is the absolute reality, the Subtle Body/ Reflection belong to a lower order of reality.
Lesson 6: Implication of the facts – II
Statement 11: I am living in a world that is created by me.
God created the world exactly according to my specification. However, I do not live in it. Instead, I have created my own world and live in it.
Example: The owner asks the contractor to build a house according to the given specifications. When the contractor hands over the professionally constructed house (as per specification), the owner makes amateurish alterations to the house and starts complaining of poor construction for which God is not at all responsible.
This is further explained with the following facts.
Statement 12: The basis for our creation is the world created by God.
We are living in a world, created entirely by us. However, the basis for this creation is God’s creation.
Example: The mobile phone we build is ours. Nevertheless, it is used only with the ears and mouth provided by God. Similarly, for all our creation we need a foundation, which is provided by God. (This example is to stress the point of the dependence on God’s creation. In fact even the mobile phone is not our creation as explained under the next fact)
In other words, all our creations are additions that are superimposed on the God’s creation, just like a false ceiling under the real roofing.
Statement 13: Nothing that we see in this world is created by us.
We have a mistaken notion of God’s creation. Everything in this world is created by God but we claim it to be our creation.
Example: The house we build is not our creation. It is entirely God’s creation. Can we name a single material (that is used in the construction) which is fully created by us and not come from God’s creation? All the materials that are used for construction are sourced from God’s creation either directly or indirectly.
We have just given a form by putting together the building materials and named it as house. We did not create anything at all.
Even the brainpower and the muscle power behind the construction of house belong to God. Our entire physical body is a modified form of food provided by God.
Thus, even the spider’s web cannot have status of spider’s creation since the web is a modified form of food that is consumed by the spider. The food that the spider consumes is part of God’s creation.
Thus, all the objects that we see around whether manmade or otherwise belong to God’s creation.
This can also be proved by considering the fact that man himself is a creation of God and therefore whatever he creates is God’s creation.
Statement 14: We have mistaken notion on the ownership.
We mistake our creation as God’s creation and claim God’s creation as our own.
Example 1: “I have two grounds of land in the village”. The land is part of God’s creation but we claim it to be ‘mine’.
Example 2: We say “God has created good and evil in the world”. This is our own creation but we impose it on God.
Lesson 7: We create our world.
Session: D10 – D11
Statement 15: The world that is created by me is made up of thoughts.
Whatever we can point out and say ‘THIS’ is a creation of God. If we accept God’s creation as it is, we will not have any problem in the world and every one can live joyfully forever. Unfortunately we create an imaginary world and superimpose it on God’s creation as detailed below.
Our world is made up of thoughts.
Process of building our thought-world
Step 1: There is a pot in front of me (God’s creation)
Step 2: I generate a thought and send it to the pot through my eyes
Step 3: The thought, after covering the pot travels back to my mind
Step 4: Then the thought creates a three dimensional form of the pot in my mind.
Step 5: Now I have knowledge of pot.
[This process as detailed above contradicts what is described by modern science. According to scientists light hits the object, gets reflected and enters the eyes and forms an image on the retina etc.
This can easily be proved wrong since we do not see everything that is in front of us but see only what we want to see. Our mind is the primary instrument of perception, which needs to send the thoughts out through the sense organs to perceive any object. Perception is never initiated by the object or the sense organs or light. It is initiated only by the mind.]
The pot, which is made of clay, is God’s creation. It is a clay-pot.
The pot, which is made of thoughts, is my creation. It is a thought-pot.
There will always be difference between the clay-pot and the thought-pot, although ideally both are supposed to be the same. This is explained by two examples
Example 1: A metal doll is made using a mold. The internal space in the mold determines the shape of the doll. Our thought object is similar to the doll. The mold is our creation. The metal is made by God’s creation. An object outside is God’s creation. The corresponding thought object in our mind is molded according to the shape of the mold. Both these objects will never be identical because our biased preferences are the mold which always distorts the fact.
Example 2: A candle light lit in a dark enclosed place reveals a form in the shape of the enclosed space. If the size and shape of the enclosed space is different, the form revealed by the light from the same candle will be different.
Similarly, the God-created-object which exists outside creates varied and different thought-objects in the minds of different people according to the preferences and knowledge (molds) that is already present in the mind of the perceiver. Since the mold of each person differs thought-object also differs.
Thus through the process as explained above, we create a thought-pot (my creation) which approximately corresponds to the clay pot (God’s creation). And the thought-pot which is in my mind is perceived only by me and not by anyone else.
I create the entire world in my mind as thoughts, the basis for which is God’s creation.
Example: In New York, there is a place called China Town. Although very similar, it is not China.
Our five senses act like a synchronized camera that records all the five sensations that we experience from the world continuously and build a thought-world in our mind. Although very similar, it is not the real world created by God.
How big and vast my thought-world is, depends on my intelligence and exposure. If I am well read and have traveled widely, my world is much bigger than that of an illiterate person who has never left his village.
Statement 16: Each human being creates his own version of the world.
The process of gaining the knowledge as described above will not vary whether we gain wrong knowledge or right knowledge.
Example: There is a rope (God’s creation). One person sees it as rope and another sees it as snake. Both are man’s creation.
Thus, each person creates his own version of the world, which is made up of his thoughts. It includes right/ wrong knowledge, dreams, imagination, remembering the past or planning the future. In short, all thoughts are man’s creation.
The clay pot (God’s creation) is one. However, the corresponding thought-pots that are created in the minds of the people are many and each thought-pot widely differs from the other. Similarly, each one of us is carrying our own version of the world and obviously, there are wide differences among the views.
The image we create on seeing the object is identical to the image created by us either during dream or from imagination.
Example: Assume that there is no viewfinder in a video camera. To see any object it has to be displayed on the LCD screen. The images can come from the memory of the video camera or from the lens showing the live objects.
There is no difference whatsoever between the two sets of images. By looking at the LCD screen alone, one cannot say whether it is displaying the real live objects or replaying the earlier recordings.
Technically, there is a difference based on the source. If it is previously recorded, it is called ‘from the memory’ else, it is live or online.
When we perceive the objects of the world, ideally we should be seeing the world live or online mode. However, this does not happen for most of us, since we do not have the knowledge from the scriptures. Most of the time, we see the recording and seldom see the live object/ event.
Whenever anyone refers to the object, they are referring to the thought-object in their mind and NOT the real object created by God. The person to whom the communication is made recognizes the object, which is in his mind, and NOT the real object.
Thus, every one of us is carrying our own version of the world. When we interact with each other, if these versions coincide then we call that ‘effective communication’ and if they do not, we refer it as a case of misunderstanding.
Example: Assume that everyone is watching an event only through their own video camera and each one is carrying different models/ brands of the camera. If the image formed in various cameras are with different color settings (more of red or blue etc) then each one is seeing reality differently.
This means each one of us is experiencing the reality around us through our own colored preferences as explained by the next statement.
Lesson 8: Our vision is colored.
Statement 17: My version of the world is colored by my preferences.
All of us are wearing colored spectacles. Although the object we see (which is God’s creation) is identical, each one sees it differently.
Example: Four office-colleagues go to a new place for a picnic
One likes the place and wants to spend a couple of days there
The second says that the place is nice but not worth staying over
The third says the place is just like any other place nothing new
The fourth can’t stand the place and wants to get back immediately
The place (creation of God) is identical but each person reacts in different way. One kilogram of rice is one kilogram of rice to everyone in the world. But a poor person will be very glad to get it and a rich person does not attach much value.
Similarly, the cost/ shape/ size of a medal/ cup is identical to everyone in the world but it creates different emotions in the minds of the winner, runner up and the person who did not participate in the competition.
Thus, it is clear that the God’s creation is seen differently by each one of us since we see it through colored eyes. This is explained further using a different example.
Example: There are four men jogging in a circular park early in the morning. There was a gold coin lying on the path and no one noticed it due to darkness. When the sun came out, all four of them could see it almost at the same time but one of them picked it up.
The gold coin is God’s creation
The gold coin made up of happy thoughts is the creation of the man who picked it up. Even ten years later, he will fondly recall this incident and feel happy whenever/ wherever he was reminded about the gold coin.
The gold coin made up of thoughts with jealousy belongs to another man who curses himself not picking it up earlier. He begins to hate the person who picked it up.
The gold coin made up of thoughts with anger and hatred in the mind of another man. From that moment, he will start avoiding the thoughts of gold coin since it brings only pain in his mind.
The fourth person is indifferent. He does not care for the gold coin so he remains unaffected by the event. God created the gold coin but has not given any value to it. Only human beings have created a ‘valuable gold coin’.
Thus while God has created one gold coin, there are four different gold coins created in the minds of four people. If there is a desire for the gold coin it creates a memorable (either positive or negative) emotion. If there is no desire for it then one is indifferent to it.
Gold coin is an inert object. Therefore, we can easily understand that the differences in the minds of the four people are only due to their own creation. But the fact remains same even with living beings.
Instead of gold coin, if they find a dog, one (who is an animal lover) will want to take to as his pet dog, one (who is bitten by a dog before) will hate it, one (who does not care much about animals) will avoid it and the other may be indifferent. The creation (dog’s image) in their mind has no relevance to God’s creation (real dog). The real dog is in no way responsible for the varying images it has created in the minds of the people.
The situation is identical even if they find a beautiful young girl sleeping on a bench. Only the girl is God’s creation. Young, beautiful are all man’s creation. The varying thoughts in the minds of the people have no relevance to the girl. Even if the girl smiles at one of them, she is not responsible in any way for the varying images in the minds of the four men.
The image of the world one carrying in the mind is entirely his creation. No object in the outside world - including other human beings – has any role in creating the thought-world in someone’s mind.
Lesson 9: God’s creation is innocent.
Statement 18: God’s creation is not responsible for my creation.
Although it is true that man himself is a creation of God, God is not responsible for man’s creation. Man has free will to do or not to do an action. This free will is not under the control of anyone.
God has created many objects in the world. I select some of them for my use and thereby I attach more value to the selected set.
Example: A father takes a 5-year-old son for shopping. There are many toys in the shop. All of them are God’s creation. The child looks around and selects a particular toy. God does not interfere in the selection of toy. The child selects based on his likes and dislikes. Once the selection is made, the child develops an attachment to the toy. This attachment is man’s creation. He says, “Dad, I want this”. Now the father looks at the price tag and he develops an aversion to the toy (if it is beyond his budget). This aversion is man’s creation.
Both the father and the child have created their own version of a single toy out of the hundreds of the toys displayed in the shop.
Similarly, God has created many different varieties of living beings (Animals, birds, fish, plants etc). However, I select some specific species out of them and convert them as my food. I develop attachment to the chosen set, which is my own creation. God is not responsible for my selection or for my creation.
Thus, my creation is a subset of God’s creation and at the same time my creation is not influenced by God’s creation in anyway.
God has created the world using the illusion, which is neutral and impartial.
I have created my own version of the world using my mind, which is deluded. (I have thoughts of likes/ dislikes, attachment/ aversion etc)
My mind is powered by me. I have absolute power to create a world of my choice. It is entirely up to me to create a world full of good and innocent people or villains and wicked people.
God has just created man. Perceiving them as good/bad is my creation.
Therefore, the entire God’s creation is innocent. I have created the world in which I am living. If it is good and enjoyable, it is my creation. If it is bad and miserable, still it is my creation. Thus, I have created my own world, which is founded on God’s creation, but God is not responsible for my creation.
Lesson 10: I am responsible for my creation.
Statement 19: Social/ political/ economical/ religious environment is also my creation.
Once I absolve God from the responsibility of my sufferings, the general tendency is to assume that the society or government is responsible for it.
This is also not true.
I am responsible for everything. Human beings live in a community. Evolution of social/ political/ economical/ religious environment is incidental to the group behavior and cannot be avoided. Such systems will shape up depending on the intelligence level of the people who constitute the group.
In a group of animals the difference between the individual members are determined by physical strength established through one to one combat. Unfortunately, it is difficult to identify the difference between the individual members in a human society. It was determined based on physical strength during Stone Age. However, in modern times, the difference is only in the level of intelligence and this cannot be established in any conventional way.
Therefore, the social/ political/ economical/ religious environment is largely determined by the average level of intelligence of the group. As a result, it can never be perfect but it is a part of God’s creation.
We have options to select where we want to live in this world. In addition, how we view, the social/ political/ economical/ religious environment is our creation.
We are responsible for the creation of thoughts about the social/ political/ economical/ religious environment. We need to live in this environment appropriately without ever getting affected.
Example: The nature of scorpion is to sting. That is God’s creation. If I try to catch it, I might get hurt. It is my choice whether to avoid it carefully or play with it. I am fully responsible for the result.
Similarly, God has created an innocent world. Moreover, it remains innocent except in the case of human beings.
A woman is God’s creation. Seeing her as a daughter/ wife/ mother/ sister etc is man’s creation. The woman remains absolutely same but the father/ husband/ son/ brother looks at her differently.
It is man’s creation to claim ‘this is mine’.
It is my choice whether I get upset with the behavior of the people around me or recognize the Delusion of the people around and live peacefully.
God cannot control the free will of the human being because both the God and the human beings are reflections of the same ONE.
Due to Delusion each human being is building a world of his own. Each human being is also responsible for evolving a social/ political/ economic/ religious structure around them. It is up to me to deal with this reality.
I can also continue to be ignorant and be part of these structures and live like everyone else. Or wake up to the reality and recognize the existence of the individual world in the minds of each one.
If I give reality to the social/ political/ economic/ religious structure around me then it is my creation. I cannot blame the society or government for my Delusion.
Example: People get married and beget children. Then they cry that their own children are the source of their problem.
Thus if we suffer due to social/ political/ economic/ religious structure around me it is my own creation.
Thus, I am fully responsible for all my miseries. I can blame neither God nor the environment for my suffering.
Lesson 11: Practical – On Second Creation.
Session: D15 – D17
Question: If I have the complete authority to create my world, why am I not doing a good job?
We have seen that God/Society/ government are not responsible for my creation.
Then why is it I am creating this world around me, which is mixed with sorrow and pain? Why I cannot create a world, which is like a paradise with only happiness all the time?
Answer: Your past actions AND your current preferences determine the quality of your creation.
You have designed the world around you in exactly the way you have wanted it to be. However, you have forgotten your past actions.
Example: You go to a restaurant and order a plate of Idly. When you see the person on the next table is served with ghee dosa and you are getting a plate of Idly, you cannot exclaim why there is a difference in service. Each one gets what they ordered.
Similarly, in your past lives you have done many actions – good and bad – the result of which is appearing before you as your world.
Life is like a buffet spread. The quality and the variety depend on your affordability. If you have earned enough due to your good actions in the past, you will be presented with appropriate options.
Out of the many items presented to you, what items you select is according to your current preferences. If you are a type of person who will not try new items (God has not made you like that) you might miss some interesting items on a buffet.
Your current preferences are your likes/dislikes accumulated over many past births and cultivated in the current birth.
Actions: Whatever you think, you talk and you do will amount to your actions.
Actions are classified as good actions and bad actions. Every one of us inherently knows what is good and bad.
Preferences: Repeated actions lead to formation of a habit. Habit determines what we like and what we dislike. These are our preferences.
Thus, your creation depends on your past actions and your current preferences.
Question: Looks like I am totally controlled. How can I then be responsible for my creation?
Answer: Your past actions determine your current options. Therefore, it is clear that your current actions will determine your future options.
Secondly, the past actions determine only what is offered to you. However, you have complete control over what you select. Your current preferences could be controlled fully by you.
Example: What is displayed in a buffet is the result of your past actions. However, what you select out of it is entirely up to you. You may like fried potato and hate green salad. Still you may decide to eat only healthy food. It is completely under your control.
If you start eating green salad and stop eating fried potato, your preferences will be changed. Within couple of years, you will find that you like green salad and hate fried potato.
Both fried potato and green salad are God’s creation. They are innocent. There is nothing wrong with fried potato. If your body is not able to digest, it is up to you not to eat it.
Thus, the current actions will define your preferences. You have full control over your current actions. As a result, you completely determine your future options and the preferences.
Thus, you are fully responsible for the world created by you. If you are not happy about the world you have created, you have complete control and authority to redefine it the way you want it.
If you create an image of fried potato as a tasteful / enjoyable diet it will give you sorrow whether you eat it or not. (Eating will spoil your health. Not eating will make you disappointed) Instead, if you create an image of fried potato as rich carbohydrate stuff you will ignore it in the buffet.
God’s creations are innocent. You have choice on how to convert that into your creation.
Example: You are watching a politician talking non-sense in the TV news. (This is God’s creation). If you take it seriously, your blood pressure will go up. Instead, if you take him to be a joker you will have a hearty laugh. (You have a choice in your creation)
Thus, you can get upset, remain unaffected, or even have fun depending on how you create your world.
Question: What is the nature of the world created by me?
Firstly, it should be understood that it is not possible to enjoy God’s creation unless one creates one’s own world. That is creating our own world is not a crime. In fact, it cannot be avoided.
Revelation goes with pervasion. Unless the objects created by God, is pervaded by thoughts, we cannot perceive the world. Even animals do this. Nevertheless, they do not attach frills and other add-ons. They simply create a world exactly the way it is created by God. Human beings make alterations.
Example: A doll is made by pouring molten metal inside the mold. Similarly, man’s world is created by pouring the thoughts into the objects (created by the God). However, unlike the normal mold, God’s creation is continuously being modified. As result, we need to break the frozen thoughts (fixed ideas) and remake them into the changed mold. However efficient this process is there will always be a gap between God’s creation and man’s creation.
In case of animals, it is easy for them to melt the doll repeatedly and remake it according to the changing mold. In case of human being it is difficult to change fixed ideas. As a result, the dolls made out of the changed mold are not perfect.
For a cow, the green grass (God’s creation) and the thought-grass (cow’s creation) are identical. For a man, the thought-grass (man’s creation) is different from the green grass (God’s creation) because he has his own ideas about it.
God’s mind is illusion using which he creates the world. Man’s mind is deluded, using which he creates his own world. Both God and man are powered by the same ONE.
While change in the God’s creation is natural, the changes in the man’s creation depend on his mental maturity.
The balloon was very valuable to the child. When he grows up it is no longer valuable.
God’s world always exists in the present. God has not invented time. Time is man’s creation. Past and future are man’s creation.
World is continuously changing to provide appropriate experiences to living beings. Since human beings do not have the knowledge of their past deeds it appears to be unpredictable.
Problems with the Second Creation
Number of Sessions: 3
(19 to 21)
Number of Lessons 2
(12 to 13)
On completion of this Unit, the student will be able to
(h) Identify the source of all our problems in the world
(i) Necessity of both the creations
Notes to the teacher:
Students may be encouraged to compare daydreaming with the second creation of man.
Most people will refuse to believe that what we think is more important than what is ‘real’. This wrong conclusion should be removed prior to proceeding to the next unit.
22. Give two proofs to show that our own creation is the only cause of our misery and not the God’s creation. (Lesson 12)
Lesson 12: I am the cause of my problems
Statement 20: I am responsible for all my problems.
We have seen two creations
God’s creation (Universe)
My creation (Thought-image of the visible universe)
God’s creation does not affect me in any way. All my problems in life are only due to my creation.
This is proved by P/A Test. (Presence/ Absence Test)
Proof 1: In ONLY God’s creation, one is joyful.
1. This happens in deep sleep. The world exists (as created by God) and my creation does not exist while I am in deep sleep. I had a sound peaceful sleep.
2. This happens in deep meditation. The people who are capable of going into trance tell me that they are able to stop the flow of thoughts in the mind for a while. During that time the God’s creation is very much there. And the man’s creation is fully absent. And they tell me they were peaceful without any worries.
3. This also happens in the normal life of wise men. Those who have completed this analysis and found the true knowledge tell me that their life is joyful and the world as created by God does not affect them at all.
Proof 2: I suffer ONLY in my own creation
1. This happens when I am anxious about the future. God’s creation is available only in the present. There is no way anyone can predict the future. Still I am anxious about the future and suffer. (For example my son has not come back from school and I assume either there was an accident or someone kidnapped him and I suffer)
2. This happens when I feel guilty about the past. God’s creation exists only in the present. However, my picture of the past makes me suffer thinking about what I should I have done/ could have done and the damage caused to my image in the minds of others.
3. My dream is entirely my creation and the God’s creation is totally absent. During my dream I become happy and sad depending on the events in my dream.
Thus from the above two proofs it is clear that,
Whenever I am sad, I am living in my creation
Whenever I am in God’s creation, I am joyful and do not feel any sadness
My creation is the source of my sorrow. And God’s creation is totally innocent.
Example: About 300 years back, Raman and Soman left their village and went to a far off city to earn money. After about two years there was a traveler from the city passing through the village. The wives of Raman and Soman met him and asked if he knows Raman/ Soman and enquired about their welfare. The traveler said “They made lots of money. Raman is planning to return to the village shortly but Soman has unfortunately died in an accident”.
However, the traveler did not know them too well and therefore inadvertently he had switched the names of Raman and Soman
God’s creation: Raman is dead. Soman is rich.
Man’s creation: The widow of Raman started celebrating the good news and spending all their money. The wife of Soman is mourning the death.
Both the happiness and the sorrow has no relevance to the God’s creation
Thus, it is proved that God’s creation does not affect the life of men in any way. It can be argued that as and when the respective families come to know the truth the emotions will become opposite. This may not happen. Who knows what will happen in the future? Soman might decide to settle down in the city with a new wife. Raman’s share of wealth might reach his family through a well wisher.
Lesson 13 – No one else is the cause of my problems
Statement 21: External objects, events or persons can never be the cause of my problems/ sorrow.
Without adequate thinking, we had wrongly assumed that all our miseries in life are caused by persons, objects and events belonging to the world created by God. This wrong assumption is due to inadequate application of P/A Test.
Example: While getting ready to leave for the school my three year old son cries. Therefore, I conclude that the school is the reason for my son’s sorrow. Solution: No more school to my son!
This is a hasty conclusion. May be he cries because the school shoe is very tight! In order to find out why he cries we need to extensively analyze the problem then we will find the true source of problem.
Thus if we apply a rigorous P/A test, we will know that every time we get upset, angry or depressed, we seem to wrongly conclude that the cause is external.
Unless the external world is converted as thoughts in my mind I cannot suffer. Therefore, if I suffer the cause is internal and never external. It cannot be argued that creation of thoughts is based on external thoughts.
Example: Many people fail in exams but only one or two commit suicide ‘because’ they failed in the exam.
How we create the thoughts in our mind determines whether we suffer or not.
Statement 22: I cannot and should not avoid both the creations.
God’s creation is the basis or foundation for my creation.
It is not possible to negate God’s creation. Because it exists
It is not possible to run away from God’s creation because it is everywhere.
It is not possible to perceive the God’s creation unless I create my own thought- world that corresponds to the creation of God.
My creation is the only source of my problems. Nevertheless, it does not mean we should not create our own world. There is no such option.
The issue is how I create my thought-world. Due to my imperfect understanding of God’s creation, I create my thought-world wrongly and end up in suffering.
Therefore, the solution is to understand the true nature of God’s creation and create our own thought-world with that right perspective.
Solution to the problem
Number of Sessions 9
(22 to 30)
Number of Lessons 4
(14 to 17)
On completion of this Unit, the student will be able to
(g) Break the Eternal Cycle of misery
(h) Discuss the solution to the problem
Notes to the teacher:
This unit is important since the student will derive benefit by applying these solutions in the real life. The students should be asked to make individual presentation on the personal experience on how they are progressing towards Joyful Living. They should quote relevant portion of the text which appeals to them.
15. What is the suggested three step solution? (Lesson 14)
16. Describe the process of implementing the solution (Lesson 15)
17. List the cause-effect of Eternal Cycle (Lesson 16)
Lesson 14: Suggested solution to my problems
Statement 23: The solution to my problems is in understanding God’s creation.
Understanding the true nature of God’s creation is a three-step process.
Statement 24: I need to Study the Scriptures under the guidance of a teacher
Step 1: Consistent and systematic study of the Scriptures under a competent guide for considerable length of time.
Statement 25: I need to reflect on the teaching and clear my doubts.
Step 2: Reflecting on the central theme of the Scriptures until the knowledge becomes strong without any shade of doubt.
Statement 26: I need to internalize my understanding through meditation
Step 3: Meditating on the true knowledge until the true knowledge is guiding me in creating my world.
God’s creation is not the absolute reality. It is an illusion. Just as dream world belongs to a lower order of reality, the ‘real’ world also belongs to a lower order of reality in comparison with ONE. Once this knowledge guides me, I will not give undue reality to the God’s world while creating my world.
Therefore, my world will always be devoid of any problems. I will not run after anything nor run away from anything in God’s creation.
Example: If I know that the ‘fresh grapes’ in the drawing room are made out of plastic, I will not be tempted to eat it. Nor I will be disappointed that I am not able to eat it. On the other hand, if I continue to think that they are real, my mouth will start watering. I will be waiting for my host to offer them to me or I will make a fool of myself by attempting to eat it since I have an image of real thought-grapes (my creation) in my mind.
Thus, understanding the God’s creation in the right perception helps me to create my world appropriately and therefore it will be devoid of any problems.
Lesson 15: Implementation of the solution
Session: D23 – D27
The suggested solution once implemented will enable us to progress through the following steps.
Statement 27: Understand that God’s creation is an illusion.
As long as we give the status of absolute reality to God’s creation, we will continue to create a wrong image of the universe in our mind leading to sufferings in life. Everything in the universe, including our body/mind, is part of the illusion. They do not really exist.
However, I exist for real. I am the only absolute reality.
Our body/mind complex interacts with the rest of the world in the relative reality.
It is not possible to prevent our body/mind complex from getting involved in life and interacting with the world, even if we understand that the world is an illusion. We will continue to live in the relative reality. The only thing that is possible is to avoid suffering and live joyfully.
In order to live joyfully in the relative reality we should critically analyze why we do what we do and see how our body/mind complex is the prisoner of the whole process.
Example: In a wild life reserve, the forest conservationists are monitoring the sustenance and growth of all the animals and plants. Compared to the animals in the cages, the animals in the reserve might feel that they are totally free. Nevertheless, the reality is that they are also living in a controlled environment.
Similarly, we might be under the impression that we are free to do whatever we want to do. Nevertheless, even what we want to do is fully controlled which can be understood by analyzing the interactions in the relative reality which are described in the following steps.
Statement 28: Be aware that the sense objects (including persons and events), which are parts of God’s creation reaching us through our sense organs.
The only source of our knowledge is our five senses. No external object can make any impact on us until they enter into our mind through the sense organ. In addition, it needs to be converted as thoughts before it could affect us.
Example: I win $ 1 million in a lottery. This event is of no consequence to me unless I come to know about it. I can know about it only by seeing/hearing the results AND then converting the information into appropriate thoughts.
I become happy AFTER I receive the news and convert it as knowledge and NOT when the results are announced.
No external object can have any direct impact on me unless it is converted as thoughts.
Example: Someone takes a knife and cuts my leg. This event will not have any impact on me unless I sense it or see it! If I am paralyzed and do not have any sense in my leg, the event will have no impact on me. I may even die if I do not see the blood draining from my body. Still the event will not affect me because I do not know what is happening.
Thus, the external world has to be first converted as my thoughts before it could have any effect on me.
Statement 29: The thoughts that are created based on the input received from the sense organs are colored.
Due to our accumulated preferences we like/ dislike or we are indifferent to what we come to know. We create thoughts in our mind in line with our preferences.
Example: We see a red rose. It is a God’s creation. Nevertheless, it might trigger a thought “It is a beautiful rose” if you are so inclined. This is a colored thought.
All our thoughts are colored thoughts and we cannot help it.
In order to perceive a world (God’s creation) we need to first convert it into a ‘thought world’ (our creation). The ‘thought world’ in our mind not only differs from the God’s world but also from the ‘thought world’ in the minds of others.
All thought worlds are colored.
There is no way we can create a thought world that represents God’s creation without any distortion because we have lots of accumulated knowledge and preferences stored in our memory.
Statement 30: Our knowledge is based on our thoughts and hence they are biased
We keep collecting thoughts continuously and the entire collection of thoughts represents our knowledge. Since the coloring of thoughts differs individual to individual, all of us have biased knowledge.
If one individual believes in something that is different from the majority, we tend to say his views are biased. If we analyze deeply it can be ascertained that no two individuals will ever have identical views about everything. There invariably is difference of opinion in some issue, which is the result of our biased knowledge.
Therefore, the views of every human being are always biased and no one can ever have an unbiased view of God’s creation.
Statement 31: Our biased knowledge actually is wrong knowledge
It is not because the knowledge is biased that it is wrong. In general, most of us have wrong knowledge of the universe (God’s creation).
Due to the power of the illusion, we convert the form into substance. Form is just a property of a substance. Substance has many properties like color, density, temperature and one of them is form.
Example: We ignorantly say, “Bangle weighs 20 grams”. Bangle has no weight. It is just a form of gold. Only gold has weight. Gold is the substance that sustains the existence of any specific form (like bangle).
Similarly, the word ‘Table’ creates a thought of an object in our mind and wrongly constitutes the knowledge that ‘table is a substance’. Table is just a form. Wood is the substance.
Therefore, the first mistake we do is giving the status of substance to a form.
The second mistake we do is assuming the substance must always be visible or perceivable. We forget that the visibility is just another property of the substance. There are substances, which are invisible. In order to believe this statement we ignorantly ask another question, “If I cannot see it, can I touch it?” Just like visibility, tangibility and every other way a substance becomes perceivable is a property. Logically it is quite possible that there is a substance, which is not perceivable to any of our five sense organs.
We are ignorant of this fact and commit the second mistake of not recognizing the existence of the real substance.
The entire creation of God is just a form. We mistake this to be a substance. The real substance which appears to us in the form of universe is ONE which has no property and therefore not perceivable through any of our five senses. Therefore, we do not acknowledge the existence of ONE.
Because of these two mistakes, the knowledge that we accumulate is fundamentally wrong.
We give the status of substance to whatever form we perceive and create our own world. While God’s creation is just a form, we take that as a substance and create our world with real substances.
Secondly, the only substance that exists is ONE. We convert this substance as a property and treat that the world exists. The ‘existence’ is the nature of ONE and we wrongly transfer this ‘IS’ ness as a property of world and imagine that ‘world exists’, while in reality it is an illusion of forms. In our creation, it exists as real substance. This results in wrong knowledge.
Statement 32: Colored thoughts are converted as desires/ aversions.
Because of our wrong knowledge, thoughts are converted as desires (if we like the object/ person) or aversions (if we hate the object/ person). If we have the right knowledge that the objects do not really exist then we will not have any desires or aversions.
Since we have created a world of ‘real’ substances, we start desiring them.
Another proof that everyone in the world has biased knowledge is the variety in our likes/dislikes and views.
Example: Some students want to study medicine and become doctors. They are as biased as those students who do not want to become doctors.
There are many people who believe that Hitler was a great hero and his actions were commendable. The knowledge and beliefs of these people are as biased as the rest of us.
Thus, our biased knowledge gives rise to varied desires/ aversions.
Statement 33: Our desires/ aversions are the root cause of our action
The word ‘action’ includes what we think, what we say and what we do.
All our actions stem from our desires. We have a sense of incompleteness and we feel that we will reach fulfillment on obtaining the object of desire. Therefore, we are working towards it.
Since we are ignorant about our real nature of ‘Ever witnessing joy’ we chase worldly objects for security, peace and happiness. Since the worldly objects are just forms and do not have these qualities our search never ends. We keep chasing a mirage all the time.
When our desires are not fulfilled, we develop anger/ hatred/ jealousy and all such negative emotions. Even when our desires are fulfilled, since they do not give us fulfillment and everlasting joy we become greedy. We desire more and more hoping that one day, we will reach the destination. This will lead us to more action in the wrong direction.
Our actions become more intent as we progress in the wild goose search.
Example: When we get a promotion in our work place, we work harder for the next promotion. If we do not get the promotion, we try harder to get a better job elsewhere.
As one progress in life, the race will become more intense. Everyone will envy his neighbors and counterparts who are equally jealous of someone higher up. There will be an air of mistrust and people will start working in unethical and immoral ways to reach the destination.
Thus, because of our biased wrong knowledge we do more intense/ fierce action.
Statement 34: Repeated actions lead to habits.
Whatever we think/ talk/ do repeatedly, will become our habits without our conscious knowledge. Moreover, it will be difficult to come out of our habits.
Example: If you start drinking coffee, just because it is offered free of cost at the work place it will become a habit and you will not be able to work without drinking coffee.
Once such habits are formed, we will get involved in action without the actual desire driving us to do action. Our day-to-day activities are not the result of any specific desire. We go to work, eat and watch TV etc because they are our habits. New desires when converted into repeated action will become our daily routine. Thus, our desires are perpetuated into action by becoming habits.
Thus, we continuously work harder in search of our elusive goal. We do not even take a break to reflect on the rat race that is going on all around. We continuously get involved in action and form fixed habits.
Statement 35: Our habits determine our personality.
What we think, what we say, what we do, what we believe, what we like/ dislike, what books we read, which friends we share our views with and how we view the society determines our personality.
I am what I am today because of what I did in the past.
As we progress in our life, our personality becomes stronger.
Statement 36: Our personality (which includes our preferences) will color our thoughts
The cycle is completed when the habit lead to reinforcement of our preferences. So we are attached to more objects, desire more of them, get into more action chasing them and the result is more misery.
Lesson 16: Freedom from the Eternal Cycle
We can get freedom from the Eternal Cycle if the Cycle is understood.
Sense organs perceive the world
Thoughts are created in our mind
Thoughts become desires
Desires lead us to act
Repeated action forms a habit
Habit sets our preferences
Preferences color our thoughts
Colored thoughts give us wrong knowledge
Wrong knowledge lead to further desires
Desire leads to further action for getting the object of desire
We will be craving for the object, life will be miserable until we get it.
There will be anxiety and stress about the future.
Our behavior will be disgusting but we may not be aware of it
Minor provocation will lead us to get irritated or short-tempered
We will have suspicion that anyone becoming an obstacle
Any obstacle to our progress will create anger
Any shortfall/ shortcoming in the result will give us displeasure
If our opponents get what we want, we will develop animosity
Wish to take revenge against those who caused failure (Vengeance)
Failure without reason will lead to frustration/ shame/ disappointment
If obtained through unethical way there will be feeling of guilty
If not obtained because of sticking to ethics, there will be a guilty feeling
After getting there will be a fear of losing
After losing, there will be grief
After getting there will be worry of maintenance/ sustenance
Getting the objects will make our preferences stronger and aim for higher and bigger desires. Until one fails in the attempt, the desire will keep increasing.
Thus, either getting or not getting the object of desire will lead to misery.
There is only one exit out of this eternal cycle.
The exit is, understanding the true nature of the world. If we know that the world cannot give us support or fulfill our real requirements then we will stop desiring. Then we can free ourselves from this eternal cycle. Once we achieve this the world will no longer affect us.
Example: A child will be very happy to get a balloon. You can share the happiness by congratulating the child and appreciating its good fortune. Of course you know that the balloon is worthless and cannot give you any happiness.
Similarly, the whole world consisting of ignorant people are behaving like the child and getting false happiness from the objects (Name, fame, wealth, education etc) of the world. You can join the fun by congratulating them. Of course you know that these will never give lasting happiness. You will not be thrilled even if you acquire any of these.
The advantage of this mental balance is that you will not be hurt when the balloon bursts.
Thus, the world (God’s creation) will become a source of entertainment. If we lean on the world for support then we will be disappointed because by nature the forms will get deformed!
It is an art to get involved in the worldly affairs purely for entertainment without ever becoming dependent on it. As long as wealth, relationships and other comforts in life are available to us, we can enjoy. However, when they disappear nothing is lost. When a TV show gets over life does not end.
This understanding will solve all the problems of the world. If there are problems in life it only means that there is a problem in our understanding and we need to correct our mind in order to reach a totally problem free life. There is nothing to be done externally. A problem free world cannot be brought about by attempting to change the world.
Lesson 17: Summing up the solution
We have seen two creations
God’s creation (Universe)
Our creation (Thought-image of the visible universe)
God’s creation does not affect us in any way. All our problems in life are due to our own creation.
Therefore, the solution lies in creating our universe with proper understanding of the God’s creation.
If we build our world with the assumption that the God’s creation is real then we will be caught in the misery.
If we build our world, with the truth that the God’s creation is an illusion then we will be free of all the problems and life will be one long entertainment.
It does not matter what we see (and experience). What matters is how we see (and experience).
We need to see God’s creation without superimposing our own creation on it.
If we can do this, the world will be a place of everlasting entertainment without any suffering.
Benefits of understanding TWO creations
Number of Sessions 3
(31 to 33)
Number of Lessons 2
(18 to 19)
On completion of this Unit, the student will be able to
(a) Identify the Long term and Short term benefits of the knowledge
(b) Progressively gain joyful living
Notes to the teacher:
Students should not be allowed to conclude the module with a feeling of vacuum. Normally after negating the world as illusion, it may be felt that nothing is remaining. Care should be taken to emphasize that the Joyful Living involves enjoying every moment of life.
If any student has any reservation, he should be encouraged to reveal the same in the class as it will benefit everyone.
1. Describe the Long-Term Benefits (Lesson 18)
2. Describe the Short-Term Benefits (Lesson 19)
Lesson 18 – Knowing the creation
Our investigation on creation has successfully ended with the following understanding.
All our actions are classified as good, bad and neutral
• Good actions are those which we do to help others
• Bad actions are those which hurts others physically or mentally
• Neutral actions are those that does not affect others in anyway
Good and bad actions will give us corresponding good and bad results
The current status of our life is purely the result of the cumulative good and bad actions done by us in the past.
During the deep sleep, this cause-effect cycle is put on hold. We wake up from deep sleep when it is time to enjoy the fruits of our actions
When we get up in the morning, we are presented with the events, objects and persons as result of our past actions. This continues until we go back to deep sleep.
We convert the events, objects and persons as thoughts and enjoy or suffer.
Thus, both the enjoyment and suffering comes ONLY though our thoughts.
It is not possible to control the events or behavior of persons. However, if we understand the whole process we can choose to ignore the bad results thereby ensuring joyful living in every moment of our life.
Example 1: You get involved in a minor road accident. It is immaterial who caused the accident. You are involved in the accident purely because of your past actions. It is no use cursing others or yourself. You need to do necessary actions to salvage the situation according to the best of your ability without doing any bad actions.
Example 2: You might suffer a loss (minor or major) due to a communication gap. It does not matter who is at fault. According to your fructifying results of your past actions, you are supposed to face such situation. Choosing to suffer due to the loss or ignoring that as an illusion is our choice.
In both these examples while one is deeply involved, chances are quite bright that one forgets that the world is an illusion. Even while going through such difficult moments if one is aware of the only reality, it is possible to life joyfully.
Lesson 19 – Benefits of knowing the creation
There is nothing but ONE. The world is a form that is superimposed on the only real substance, ONE. We perceive the form as a substance and create our own world, which is the only reason for all our sufferings in life.
Once we understand this, we will not desire for name, fame, power, position, property, awards, rewards, relationships, social status. Such desire will exist so far we are ignorant of the true nature of the world. If we know that the world is just a form, which is not stable, we will not have any desires.
We will continue to function in the world earning wealth, name, fame etc but not with the view to derive any security/ peace / happiness from them. They are for entertainment and for providing comforts in the illusory world. All our actions will be devoid of any desires.
The greatest advantage of such desire less action is avoidance of all the negative emotions
No disappointment because we do not have any expectations.
No anxiety because we are not concerned about the future.
No worry because we do not wish any specific results.
No anger because nothing can obstruct our goal (There is no goal).
No jealousy because we know others do not gain any happiness from their possessions.
No attachment with anyone/ any object because we know that they are not permanent and more importantly that they are not the source of happiness.
No greediness because there is nothing to gain from material possessions.
No miserliness. Willing to share and help others since we know that essentially, everyone is the very same ONE.
No competition at all because everyone is carrying the winner’s trophy with them from the commencement of the race.
No ill feeling against anyone because everyone is climbing towards the same ultimate goal of finding out that they are carrying the winner’s trophy.
Total acceptance of everyone as they are. Because the differences among the people are natural. (Both 8 year old and 13 year old are considered normal although their behavior is not same.)
Loving kindness to everyone around since all are colleagues in the same game.
Thus, one will start living joyfully once this knowledge is gained.
Understanding Four Sayings
Unit 01 Nature and pursuit of living beings
Unit 02 Classification of living beings
Unit 03 Activity Based Learning
Unit 04 Role of religion/ Holy Scriptures
Unit 05 Benefits of learning
Nature and pursuit of living beings
Number of Sessions: 9
(01 – 09)
Number of Lessons: 5
(01 – 05)
On completion of this unit, the student will be able to
(h) Understand the role of intelligence in Joyful Living
(i) Understand the difference among people
Notes to the teacher: (Ref 5.1 and 5.8 of the original text)
This Module contains the basic inputs required to understand the Holy Scriptures. The teacher has to ascertain the level of the student according to the level of intelligence described and guide the student accordingly.
The role of Holy Scriptures should be explained.
Clear knowledge of I can be obtained only from Holy Scriptures.
Mirror shows your face – Holy Scriptures shows the real you
Clear the mirror to get clarity - Enquiry of Holy Scripture for self enquiry
You can never see your face except looking at the mirror. You can never know your real self except by reading the Holy Scriptures.
You LOOK at the mirror but SEE your face
You READ Holy Scripture but UNDERSTAND you.
23. What is the reason for difference in the level of intelligence among people? (Lesson 2)
24. How the personal preferences hinder the progress? (Lesson 2)
25. What are the Eternal Questions and can they be answered (Lesson 3)
26. Why should we find the answers to the Eternal Questions?
27. What are the FOUR sayings (from four religions) (Lesson 3)
28. How will you identify the person who has the highest truth? (Lesson 4)
29. Discuss the difference between THREE basic goals in life and the ONLY purpose in life. (Lesson 5)
Lesson 1: Introduction to Intelligence
Definition of Intelligence:
Intelligence refers to a general mental capability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, learn and understand new concepts, and profit from experience. Intelligence can be measured by many different kinds of tasks. Likewise, this ability is expressed in many aspects of a person’s life. Intelligence draws on a variety of mental processes, including memory, learning, perception, decision-making, thinking, and reasoning.
Classification of intelligence:
Visual/Spatial intelligence includes being able to visualize an object and to create mental images. It deals with visual arts, navigation, architecture and certain games such as chess.
Verbal/Linguistic intelligence relates to words and language. We use this intelligence in listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Musical/Rhythmic intelligence includes the ability to recognize tonal patterns, rhythm and beat. It includes sensitivity to environmental sounds, the human voice and musical instruments.
Logical/Mathematical intelligence deals with inductive and deductive reasoning, numbers and relationships. It involves the ability to recognize patterns, to work with geometric shapes and to make connections between pieces of information.
Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence deals with physical movement, the knowledge of the body, and the body functions. It includes the ability to use the body to express emotion(s), to play a game, and to interpret and invoke effective "body" language.
Interpersonal intelligence is used in person-to-person relationships. It includes the ability to communicate with others and to have empathy for their feelings and beliefs.
Intrapersonal intelligence is based on knowledge of the "self". It includes Meta cognition (thinking about thinking), emotional responses, self-reflection and an awareness of metaphysical concepts.
In addition to the above, intelligence includes all the accumulated knowledge, proficiency, capabilities, skills and smartness for the purpose of discussion in this module.