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Ariya Dharma Upadeshangal

Ariya Dharma Upadeshangal
By Srivathsa Ve. Somadeva Sarma
Translated by P. R. Ramachander

[I obtained the Tamil book "Ariya Dharmopadesangal" which has been published by Sri Ramamurthy Srouthigal, Sri Sadguru Dattatreya Nivasa, Vidyaranyapura, Sringeri - 577 139 from my friend Sri P. V. Anatha Narayanan. I am sure this book would be very much useful to all Brahmins to know the correct Acharas.]

Introduction By Srivathsa Ve. Somadeva Sarma: Achara (rituals) are only Dharma. The Acharas followed by holy people is Sadachara and Aacharas followed by eminent followers of the religion is Sishtachara. Though we generally tell Achara as Dharma, the rules which help practice Dharma is Sadachara. In some places Dharma is the dress and Achara are the limbs. For example, performing Sandhyavandana is a Dharma, but performing it after taking bath, after marking the forehead with sacred marks and wearing a Panchakacha is the aacharas. Even Vedas do not support a person who does not have aacharas. By following Achara we can get a long span of life and also become prosperous. Many Dharma Sasthras say that Dharma is born out of aacharas and anyone who leaves aacharas has a very short span of life. Karma or Dharma is a medicine that removes sins. Achara is the discipline that we have to follow in taking the medicine. When you do not follow the disciplines, in spite of taking medicine, the disease is not cured. Sometimes even the discipline only cures the diseases. One Purana says that a hunter who only followed Achara got a Brahmin birth. Any religious deed without following the aacharas does not give results.

1. The Sun should not be seen while rising, setting or at noon. It should not be seen during eclipse or in water

2. We should go round Brahmins, Sumangalis, Temple, Gods, Peepal Tree and Cow in a clock wise manner (Pradakshina). Dhileepa, who went round a cow in an anti-clock wise direction, did not get a child.

3. We should not blow air with our mouth on fire. We should not cross fire with our feet and we should not touch it with hand. We should not put out fire by pouring water on it. We should not dry our feet by showing our feet to the fire.

4. When we reach the sacred waters, we should not keep our feet on it first. We should take the water first and sprinkle on our head and then only wash our feet. We should not spit on water. We should not bathe without cloth in sacred waters. We should not do ablations in sacred water. We should take water in a vessel and do ablations. We should not answer nature’s call inside the water. We should not put a stone in a lake or pond. Bhima who kept his feet first in sacred waters suffered.

5. Cooking food only for ourselves, making garland out of flower for our use and cooking kheer (Payasam) are all sinful activities. We should first offer everything to god and guests and take it ourselves.

6. Before going to bed, we have to wash our feet, dry it with a cloth, meditate on God and then only go to sleep. We should not sleep with our head pointing to northern direction. We should not sleep on a broken cot. We should not sleep in a dilapidated house; we should not wake up a person who is sleeping. Waking up elderly people is a great sin. While we sleep, all our sense organs are within our mind. If we wake up a person in half sleep, the organs instead of returning to proper places may go to places of other organs. (E.g. mouth may go to nose). Because of this a person can become blind or deaf.

7. Periods of a woman are a penance for Brahma Hathi. We should not go near them during those three days. While we are eating, we should not hear their voice. We should not use water and food after they have used it. On fourth day after bath, if she cooks by going near fire, she would get sick. The one who eats the food she prepares would get tainted. She would get pure only on fifth day.

8. All gods reside on a cow. Going round it in clock wise direction, comforting it, offering grass, rice bran, water and oil cake to it are blessed deeds. We would be blessed with children because of that. Kicking a cow with leg, hitting it with a stick, eating food without feeding it, informing the owner when it grazes in his field are sins. We would be born as an out caste by doing any of these. Once, a Brahmin threw away food as the dust raised by cow's feet fell on it. Due to it, he was born as an out caste called Kaisika, By serving a cow, King Dileepa got a great son called Raghu. We should try to protect the cow as much as possible. At least we should not trouble it.

9. We should not use cloths, slipper, garland, water pot, seat and bed that were used by others. It would be a sin and bring diseases.

10. The smoke from a corpse, early sun light, shadow of a lamp, shadow of a human being and shadow of an out caste should not fall on us. It would cause health problems and reduce our life span.

11. Nails and hair are like the lifeless feather on our body. A married householder should cut / shave his hair only once a month, that too after seeing an auspicious time. We should not cut our hair or shave ourselves. Our forefathers used to see proper Nakshatra and thithi. It is essential to see thithi only. If we do shaving on Chathurthi day, our mother will be affected and doing it in Chathurdasi would lead to bad effects to the sister; Sashti is not good to brother; Amavasya, Pournami, Ekadasi and Dwadasi are not good to father. Doing it in Prathma would lead to loss of Wealth, doing it on Navami would cause loss of grains, on Ashtami it would destroy our family. Wednesday is a good day for hair cutting / shaving. We should not get it done on Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays. After the death taint of a clan member, we should cut our hair and do Tharpana. If that day falls on a Friday, shaving can be done on Thursday itself. During taint and before the annual death ceremony (Sradham), it is essential to shave off all hairs of our body.

12. We should not nip our nails. If we do it, immediately we have to take a bath. You should not draw a line on floor using the nail. You should throw the cut nails outside our house. We should not bite the nails with our teeth. Moodhevi (Jyeshta Devi) says that such persons are the place of her personal residence.

13. We should not nip grass, durba or flower with our nails. Nails should not touch the water that we are drinking. Introducing finger to see whether water is hot is wrong. We should pour water in our hands and test it. If we sprinkle water using nails on other person, our nail would get infected. (Nakha chuthi. We should not nip the banana fruit with nail before offering it to God. We would remove the skin at the tip of our fingers. We should not remove sandal paste meant for God by using the nail. We should do it by our inner finger.

14. Without reason, we should not powder mud balls, tiles and bricks.

15. We should not wear a flower which has not been offered to God. We should not wear it in such a way that it is visible outside our hair. If those, who do not comb their hair, tie flowers with hair, the scent of the flower will not go out. Ladies should not wear flowers without scent. We should not stamp used flowers with our feet.

16. We should not travel in a cart drawn by a single bullock. If we go on a pilgrimage on such a cart, it would even destroy the blessed deeds which we have done earlier. Single bullock is the steed of Lord Shiva. The Goddess of Dharma assumes the form of a single bullock and carries Lord Shiva. Climbing on a single bullock or travelling in a cart being drawn by it is an insult to Dharma.

17. We should never enter our village or house through back door or entry point. We should always go by the front door. Dakshayani (Lord Shiva's wife) entered Daksha's house by the back door and she destroyed herself as well as the yaga.

18. At night, we should not stay below a tree. If pregnant woman sleeps there, her pregnancy would get affected. At night, birds stay on the tree and their poop may fall on us. At night ghosts and devils approach the trees. Also trees leave out carbon dioxide at night. So we may get sick. It has been told that in Kali age after 5000 years, the ghosts are but the diseases.

19. We should not gamble. Playing cards with money wager is gambling. Even Yudhishtra, who knew all Dharmas, lost everything due to gambling. Since gambling leads to lie, avarice and treachery, it is one of those great sins.

20. Crossing a river swimming with hand and leg is a sin. Our Sasthras want to protect us. Lot of dangers may happen, when we cross the river due to nature's fury. So cross the river in a boat and as soon as you reach the other shore, do Aachamana. This is to expatiate ourselves from the sin of crossing the river.

21. Please do not tell about Dharma or penance without request from others. It definitely should not be told to people who are lower in birth status than us. Food should only be given to hungry people. If we tell Dharma to people who do not want it, they will not believe in it. So initially create a desire to hear Dharma in them and after their request teach them.

22. We should not stamp by our feet the shadow of God's idol, Guru, Father, mother, elders and cow. We should not cross their shadows also. We should not stamp the shadows of sinners also nor cross it. We believe that a little of a person's power is there on his shadow also. So stamping or crossing would be disrespecting them. Ravana tried to cross Kailasa Mountain and got in to trouble.

23. We should always tell the truth. If that truth is going to hurt others, we should tell even that truth. We should not tell a lie to please another man. Once, a hunter was chasing a boar. In the path there was a sage who always told the truth. The hunter asked him which way the boar went. Instead of telling a lie or causing hurt to the boar, that sage told, "Would the people who see tell? Is the man who tells, the one who has seen it?"

24. We should not call any one as a sinner. If he had not committed a sin, the bad effect of committing the sin would reach the man who called him a sinner, suppose he has done the sin, half of its bad effect will come and reach us. Three brothers were going separately on celestial vehicles to heaven. All the three of them saw a Garuda killing a serpent. The first one said it is a sin. His vehicle fell down on earth. The second one told Garuda "please kill". His vehicle also fell down. The third one kept silent and reached heaven.

25. We should never doubt about existence of God, Heavens, Effect of Karma, Re-birth and Hell because Vedas confirm that they exist and sages much greater than us support that assumption. Once when sage Brugu told a king called Somakatha about his previous birth, he doubted about it. Immediately Soma Kantha was in great pain and he saluted the sage and got his pardon. In Katopanishad, Nachikethas asks Yama, whether they exist. Yama replied, "I am the one who takes away the soul after death. I am the one who determines about the quantum of punishment to them and I send them back to this earth to be born again. So believe, believe and believe."

26. A householder should not grow hair, beard and nails for more than one month. But after the death of his parents, he should not cut them for one year. He should not also cut them when his wife is in the family way.

27. Fearing that the beggar will come, we should not close the main door during the morning and evening.

28. Finding fault of Gods, Vedas and elders should not be done. When Brahma found fault with Shiva, Veerabhadra punished him by nipping off one of his heads. Once when devas requested Lord Vishnu to talk ill of Lord Shiva, he refused. It is also wrong to find fault with those who worship God.

29. A lamp should not be put out by blowing air by the mouth. A male should never put off a lamp.

30. We should not see our shadow in water or oil.

31. We should not gnash our teeth making sound. This is a symbol of a Rakshasa.

32. When we yawn, we should cover the mouth with our hand. Yawn is the messenger to disease, laziness and sleep. At that time, the bad air in our body escapes through our mouth. Suppose this air touches others, they would become sick.

33. If the shadow of a lamp, shadow of human beings, water from cloth, water from our hair, the dust raised by a goat, dust raised by donkey, dust raised by ladies, the air made by a winnow, the dust that comes up while sweeping falls on our body, even if we have wealth equal to Indra it would be lost. They would take away the effect of good deeds done by us.

34. Man should not take food in the row of females or children. They should not take food sitting in the same row as their wives. But they can do so, after the marriage ceremony or during travel.

35. Only if we take clean food, our mind would be clean. The cook, the people who eat and those who serve it should all be clean.

36. We should not sleep during day time. We should not make love during day time. Milk should not be drunk during day time. After noon, we should not go round that Peepal tree.

37. Jyeshta Devi (Moodhevi) lives with people who do wear cloth, who do not wear Pancha Kacham or only wear loin cloth. So except during times of need, we should wear Pancha Kacham. In North India even children are habituated to wear this. "Those who do not have Kacha, those who leave a tail and tie Kacha, yhose who tie Kacha on the waist thread and those who do not tie Kacha are like people without cloth". They should not be seen during performance of any ritual. If we happen to see them, we have to take bath along with the dress we wear. The edges of a cloth should not hang while we wear the Kacha. Through that our strength will go away. Even Muslims wear cloth without the edge hanging about.

38. Our forefathers wore silk dress with borders. Silk protects the power of our soul. There is no good effect of doing a ritual without wearing Kacha. So even for rituals like Sandhya Vandana we have to wear the Kacham,

39. We should not wash our Dhothi at night. We should not sweep the floor at night nor throw trash outside our home. At night we should not stay in the shadow of any tree. We should not dig or plough earth at night. We should not talk about secrets at night.

40. We should not enter in between cows or in between the Brahmins, between fire and a Brahmin, in between husband and wife, in between teacher and student, In between brothers or sisters or in between children. If we go in between Nandi and Shiva, Shiva and Parvathi, Lord Vishnu and Garuda or Vishnu and his consorts, the effect of all good deeds done by us earlier will be lost. If we go round them in clock wise direction, we would get good effect.

41. If we stub against a stone while walking, then we should take some mud from that place and wear it on our forehead. That is called Muruthika and it will protect us from wicked spirits.

42. Those who have father or elder brother should not wear a ring made of silver (called Tharjani) in our pointer finger. Others can wear it. That finger is supposed to be defiled because Lord Shiva nipped a head of Brahma by that finger. For worship or Tharpana, the pointer finger should not be used. Silver represents Rudra and if we wear silver on that finger and touch other fingers with that finger, the others would not be defiled.

43. During Sandhya Vandhana on Chathurthi, Ashtami and Chaturdasi days, we should chant Gayathri 54 times. On Sapthami day we have to chant 37 times and on Amavasya, Pournavasya, and Prathama 26 times.

44. Daily in the mornings, we have to chant Gayathri 108 times. Gayathri should be chanted after the hands are covered by a cloth and kept in front of us. When we get death or birth taint, we should chant Gayathri ten times.

45. Even if the sacred threads are not broken, it should be changed once in four months. When thread is cut or when the taint comes and goes away and in Sravana, we have to wear a new sacred thread. If we happen to touch a sinner, bad person, barber or ladies in periods, we have to take bath and change the sacred thread.

46. On Ashtami, Chathurthi, Amavasya (new moon), Pournavasya (full moon), Sankramana (first of a month), First of a year (Manvathi or Yugadhi), Previous day of Sradha and on the last day of the taint, we should not take food at night.

47. People who are above eight years of age or below 80 years should not take any food on Ekadasi day. Those who are sick or weak can take milk and fruits for one time. Those who are not able to live that way can take boiled rice along with water but without any spices or vegetables for one time. There is no parihara (redemption) for taking food on Ekadasi day. It is a great sin. Even if Ekadasi comes during taint, we should not take food. The penance of Ekadasi would give pleasures in life on earth and later in salvation.

48. Those answering calls of nature at night, it is necessary for them to wash their legs and hands, it is not necessary to do Aachamana.

49. Except on the days of eclipse, we should not take bath at mid of the night. If there is a need, we can show a lamp to the water and then take bath.

50. After bidding farewell to friends and relatives or after doing worship or after marriage or any sacred function, we should not take bath.
51. On Sundays or on Sapthami days, we should not eat gooseberry (nellikkai). This should not be eaten at night. But if Dwadasi comes on Sunday, by the special rule, we can take it along with Agathi leaf and Chundaikkai.

52. On no night we should eat gooseberry or ginger or curds, paddy or fried flour.

53. For turmeric, ghee, salt, parboiled rice, Betel nut and jaggery there is no taint of cooking (Paka Dosha). That is they can be brought from shop and be used.

54. Penance of Upavasa is taking no food at all. During that time, if we suffer too much, we can take water, root vegetables, Ghee, milk, Rice boiled with water [without removing water], medicine and fruits. If we take any one of these, the fast is not considered broken. At the time of a fast penance, if in any one's house the Sradha cannot be performed for non-availability of a Brahmin, we can help them by participating in Sradha.

55. Before taking food, Parishechana (pouring water around the leaf), should be done with chanting the Manthra and taking water every time separately. It is not proper to take water once and do more than one Parishechana. Taking water after saying Amruthopastharanamasi (Poorva aabochanam) should be done together by people eating in groups. The water taken in the hand should be taken in completely. If that water falls on the food during day time it is like a drop of nectar. If it falls at night it is like a drop of alcoholic drink. At night as soon as the water is put in the hand, after finishing the food, we have to say Amruthabhidhanamasi and pour half of it at the right of the leaf and take the rest. This is called Pithru Theertham. When we pour Pithru Theertham we have to say "Rourave, apunya nilaye, padmarbudha nivasinaam artheenam udakam datham, akshayyam upathishtathu."

56. After taking food we have to gargle 12 times. Then wash leg and hands and do aachamanam. Only then we would be clean. By that time if we touch someone else, both the persons should take bath. After urinating we have to gargle four times, after stools 8 times, after cleaning the teeth 18 times. After these we have to do Aachamana. If we do not get good water, instead of Aachamanam we can touch the ear three times by right hand. This is called Srothrachamana.

57. When new water comes in the river, for ten days we are not supposed to take bath in it. They say that river enters in to her periods that time. Some people do not take bath from one to third day of Aadi Month (July 15 - August 15). But if eclipse, Upakama or Sankramana (first of the month) occurs during the period, we are permitted to take bath in the river.

58. Some people do evening Sandhya Vandana facing the West. Only Japa and Arghya (offering water) should be done facing the West. All other rituals including Aachamana should be done facing east or north.

59. Eclipse:
1. Four Yamams before Solar eclipse, we have to take food. (One Yaama is about 3 hours.)
2. But for lunar eclipse, food can be taken before two yamams also.
3. If the moon sets before the eclipse is over (Grahanasthamanam) then for the entire day, we should not take food and take food only after we see the moon.
4. If sun sets before the eclipse is over, we should not take any food during night and take food only after we see the Sun and take bath.
5. Those who live in sea shore can take bath in the sea when the eclipse begins but we should not take bath in ocean after the eclipse is over. This is because we are not supposed to take ocean bath during Prathama,
6. Even woman in her periods should take bath after the eclipse, in water poured by other women.
7. During eclipse all water is Ganges and all Brahmins are sage Vasishta.
8. Till end of eclipse we should chant Manthras and should not sleep.
9. Pregnant women should not come out during eclipse.
10. Food cooked before eclipse should not be eaten and it should be thrown away.
11. In case of curd or pickles, a piece of Durba should be put in them.
12. The charity and chanting of Manthras done during eclipse gives large returns.
13. In case of solar eclipse, Tharpana should be done as soon as eclipse begins and in case of lunar eclipse, it should be done when the eclipse is ending.
14. In ocean water Pithru Tharpanam should be done but for Aachamana we have to take water from home after bathing.
15. Sun and moon are lords of plants and so when the eclipse comes, our stomach should be empty.
16. Those whose Nakshtras fall at the eclipse time, should write the following Sloka on a dried leaf and Wear it on their forehead till the eclipse gets over.
Lunar eclipse sloka:
Indro, analo danda darasha ruksha prachedhaso Vayu,
Khubera, eesaa, majjanma, rukshe mama raahisamsthe,
Somoparagam shamayanthu sarve.
Solar eclipse sloka:
Indro, analo danda darasha ruksha prachedhaso Vayu,
Khubera, eesaa, majjanma, rukshe mama raahisamsthe,
Arkoparagam shamayanthu may.
Meaning:
Let Indra, Agni, Yama, Niryathi, Varuna, Vayu, Khubera, Eesaana remove the sufferings due to lunar / solar eclipse.

60. Drinking tender coconut water in a bell metal vessel is equivalent to drinking of toddy. If needed use silver vessel.

61. We should not keep milk, sandal paste and flowers in a copper vessel.

62. Ellurundai (sweet made of Gingili) and Thilannam (Rice made of Gingili) should be made only for offering to manes and devas. We should not cook it for ourselves. If we make Ellurundai or mix of jaggery and gingili and offer it to the Peepal tree, then we would get cured of diseases. If we distribute thilanna on Saturdays, sins would go away.

63. Sravana Dwadasi (Dwadasi with Sravana star (thiruonam) is greater than Ekadasi. If Sravana Dwadasi comes, it is better to fast on Dwadasi day, than on Ekadasi day.

64. Madhyahnika time is at 12 Noon. Gouna time is from 8.30 AM. On Dwdasi day before Madhyahnika time comes, in Gouna Kala we would do Madhyahnikam, Vaisva devam etc. This is because Dwadasi Paranai (taking food) should be done before Madhyahnika time. But Dwadasi sradha cannot be done in the morning.

65. If Dwadasi is only for a very little time, all rituals should be finished before Dwadasi ends and food for Dwadasi should be taken. But if it ends in very early morning, Dwadasi can be observed by taking Thulasi water. King Ambareesha did like that.

66. Whatever taint may come, the Ekadasi Vrutha should be observed. It is as important as Sandhya Vandana. But worship and Dhana (charity to Brahmins) should be got done by someone who does not have the taint.

67. Upavasa (fasting) is a ritual meant for cleaning of the body and the mind as well as to get blessings of gods. So without religious need, fasting should not be done.

68. Fast is an important method to achieve concentration of mind. Because body is the most important requirement for doing Dharma, you should not do fast till the body becomes sick. Because body depends on food for health, you should not undertake unnecessary fasting. You should not unnecessarily take food also.

69. Drinking too much and eating too much are sinful acts. Once when Bheema asked Yudhishtra how he will fall, he told him he would fall due to over eating and over drinking.

70. Those who cannot fast completely, can fast eating fruits and drinking milk. This is called Phalahara (Palaharam in Tamil). Eating hard to digest breakfast items like Uppma, Dosa, Adai etc is not fasting. Elders say that even one time fasting is good. Once Bheema told Vyasa, "I cannot fast on all Ekadasis. I will take food once in all but fast on one Ekadasi". Sage Vyasa agreed to this proposal. That Ekadasi is called Bheema Ekadasi.

71. After breaking fast on Dwadasi day, take a leaf of Thulasi after offering it to God. This would remove all problems of body and mind. Actually this should be done daily as Thulasi protects our mind and body.

72. During fast you should not drink water often. You should not clean the teeth in such a way that water in the gums is squeezed out. We should not use Thamboola and sleep during day time. Walking, fighting, talking loudly and loose talk would destroy the good effect of fasting. Talking passionately and company of women should be avoided.

73. What is Nithyopavasam (Daily fasting)? Daily taking food only twice, not taking food in between and taking every handful of food after saying "Govinda" is Nithyopavasam.

74. During Dwadasi we have to eat gooseberry, Chundaikai and Agathi Keerai. These are special items. Taking all of them is very good. But at least one of them should be taken.

75. Food that should be avoided during Dwadasi: Snake Gourd, Brinjal, Onion, Honey, Garlic, food from house of unknown people, sleeping in day time, eating food twice, love making, oil bath should be avoided. They would remove the good effects of Ekadasi fast.

76. Why this Paaranai in the morning? The one eighth portion of the Dwadasi thithi on that day is called Harivasaram. We should complete worship, Vaisvadeva and later offer food to God. King Ambareesha knew about it and took Thulasi water during that time. Doing Paranai without fasting on Ekadasi day is useless.

77. Why should Garlic and Onion be avoided? These take away the Brahmanyam within us, which was built by rituals. People, who eat these without knowing it, should once more celebrate Upanayana (sacred thread ceremony). Then only they are eligible to do daily rituals like Sandhya Vandana and ceremonies like Sradha. Though medicinally they cure some diseases, they give extra wrong energy (Madham) to people and spoil the mind. If we have to take it for medicinal purposes, we can take it but later do redemption. For ladies, drinking of Pancha Gavya is sufficient. So people who chant Gayathri should not take these just for taste or for strength.

78. Things which are equivalent to Alcohol: Water touched by nail, water drunk using left hand in times other than food time, water drunk standing up, drinking left over water drunk by somebody else, tender coconut water kept in bell metal, hot water and milk kept in copper vessel are equivalent to alcoholic drinks.

79. What should be avoided: Taking bath in Dhobhi Ghat, water in an iron vessel, taking gooseberry on Sundays, Sapthami and at night, Buttermilk churned by hand, milk in the day time, curd at night and Sathuma (multi grain flour) should be avoided.

80. Month based on Sun entering a particular Rasi is called Souramana and months based on next day of Amavasya to the next Amavasya of a month is called Chandramana. Sasthras prescribe certain rituals should be based on Souramana month and others on Chandramana month.

81. Thula Snana, Dheepavali, Karthigai Dheepa, Dhanurmasa Pooja and Shivarathri should celebrated on the Soura Mana Month.

82. Chandra Darsanam: We should not see Moon on Chathurthi day. If we see, someone will find fault with us with no basis. Since Lord Krishna saw the Chathurthi Moon, Sathrajit told that he has stolen the Syamanthaka Gem. If we think about the story of how he fought with Jambavan and brought back the gem, the problem due to seeing moon will not occur.

83. Things which reduce our life span: Drying ourselves in morning sun, being touched by the smoke from the corpse, making love to a lady elder than us, drinking water without filtering it and eating curd at night would reduce our life span every day. Not performing Oupasana, eating food meant for somebody else and eating food not supposed to be eaten, would reduce the life span according to Lord Yama himself.

84, Drying in the evening sun, the homa smoke touching us, making love to woman younger than us, drinking pure water and eating milk and rice at night would daily increase the life span. Following rules of food, doing Oupasanam, daily saluting elderly people would also increase life span. If we do not feed a guest, Nachikethas says that the wealth of our progeny would be destroyed.

85. If we make guests wait outside and take food inside the house, that food is like the cow's meat and the water is equal to toddy.

86. Never taking loan is the best. If there is need, we can take it and return it speedily. We should pay the full loan taken at that time. Suppose we take loan from someone and if we die without returning it, in the next birth, we will be born as his child and after taking that amount, that child will die.

87. We should never spend more than our income. Respectability is much greater than life we should never do anything by which we lose our respectability. The life without respect is no life at all.

88. The body is like a water bubble and purely temporary. Wealth is also not permanent. We should never postpone doing good deeds. What is the guarantee that we will be there tomorrow? As soon as we think of a good deed, we should immediately do it. Once a guest came when Rama sat down to eat, Lakshmana asked the guest to wait so that they can cook fresh food and feed him. But then Rama called the guest and told, mind, wealth, money and life are unstable. That is we cannot say as to how they will be in the next moment. So kindly take food with us."

89. Paste should not be kept on the sandal stone or on a stick. The sandal paste kept on the stone, the remaining food after a cat ate it and seeing our own shadow in water can even remove Indra's Wealth.

90. If the dust raised by hooves of a goat or that one raised by donkey, or the dust raised by broom or the dust raised by feet of ladies falls on us, our Wealth would be destroyed.

91. With this body having six senses, we should get salvation which is the ever living joy. The devotees who carry god in their mind are mobile temples. Any help that we do them is worship to God. Even though we are not great devotees, some part of God is in every one of us. So we should help others. There is no blessed deed better than this. We should help others by our body and wealth.

92. When we are in our native place we should follow all rituals prescribed by Sastras. When we go outside our place, it is sufficient if we do half the rituals. In towns, quarter is sufficient. While travelling, as much as it is possible can be done.

93. When we do Sandhya Vandhana, after we give Arghya, we should do Pradakshina. That is what is called Athma Pradakshina. We should not do Athma Pradakshina in temples, river banks and near a Peepal Tree. If we do, we will be affected by Brahma Hathya sin. Showing our back to God is a sin.

94. Keeping flower over the top of ears, man applying sandal paste only on chest and keeping Thulasi on the hair are sins. You should keep flower on hair, Thulasi over the ear and apply sandal paste on chest and arms. Ladies can wear sandal paste on their neck and arms.

95. We have to keep secret of our age, wealth, quarrels in our family, manthra which has been taught to us by a Guru, our love, our charity, prizes given to us by others, insults we have to bear and loans that we have taken. If others ask, we should give some approximate figure only. We should not hide anything from our Guru and close friend.

96. The sorrow, we cause to others, is sorrow caused to God by us. We would suffer for doing that. The one who does help to others is helping himself. One who causes sorrow to others, causes sorrow to himself. Sasthra says Paropakara Punyaya, Papaya Para Peedanam (helping others is blessed; causing hurt to others is a sin).

97. Veda says that all gods stay inside the body of a person who knows Vedas. So worship done to him is like worship of all gods. Like that, the hurt we cause to them is like hurting all gods. We should not trouble anyone. Specially, we should not trouble Brahmins. Playfully Samba put on a makeup of a lady and asked Saptha Rishis as to what type of a child would be born to him. Because of that, the axe that will destroy his entire clan was born to him. An emperor called Nruga troubled Brahmins and was born as a Chameleon.

98. We should not stand in street junction at mid night or after eating in a Sradha or at dawn or dusk.

99. Jyeshta Devi would stay permanently with a Brahmin who does not wear a cloth or one who does not wear Pancha Kacham or one who wears only loin cloth or one who is desirous of quarrel.

100. We should stand beyond two hand distance when a cart comes, beyond ten hand distance in case of a horse and 1000 hand distance in case of an elephant. In case of a bad man we should be far far away. These are actions which give results immediately (Drushta). This shows that Sasthra is very much bothered about the safety of our body.

101. The scorpion has poison in its horn, for flies and mosquitoes it is on their head and snake has poison on its fangs. But for a bad man poison is everywhere.

102. The father who dies leaving loans to be repaid by the son is like his enemy. The father who does not give us knowledge or teach us humility is his enemy. An ugly or very pretty wife is a man's enemy.

103. When we visit a place where Fire sacrifice is being performed, we should not go empty handed but carry Samith. Similarly when we visit a farm, home, temple, lady in a family way, senior citizens, Guru and King we should not go empty handed but should carry some fertilizer, something which is of use in the house, a plate of fruits, flowers, coconut, camphor etc., to the temple and food offering to others. Kuchela who took Aval (beaten rice) to see Krishna became rich.

104. Helping an extremely poor man, making arrangements for worship in temples for the persons who cannot afford it and cremation of an orphan corpse are equivalent to performance of Aswamedha.

105. While gargling or cleaning our teeth, we should not use the pointer finger. If we do, we will go to hell.

106. Till our daughter gets a child, we should not take food in our daughter's married home.

107. At the time of taking food, we should wash our hand and leg, perform Aachamana and eat food facing North.

108. We should not take food with single cloth, wet cloth, wearing silk, without chanting god's names, without putting marks on our forehead or with untied hair.

109. We should not eat the cooked rice for which Vaiswadevam has not been done or which is not offered to god. This applies even to food offered by our Guru.

110. Only after setting apart the rice meant for Vaiswadevam and offering it to God, we should start taking it.

111. Without doing Pranagni Hothram (manthras we say before taking food) you should not eat food. As soon as rice is served, we should hold the leaf with our hand.

112. We should do Aabochanam (taking a sip of water telling Manthras) only with water poured by others. When we are taking food in a group all people should do it together. No water should remain in our hand and we should not make any sound while taking that water.

113. After food is served, till Pranagni Hothram is complete we should not talk with anyone. It is better that we should not talk while taking food. But when we eat with a guest, we should talk to him and be hospitable. This does not go against the rule of being silent. During Aabochanam, when we take rice one by one, each should not be chewed by the teeth but should be swallowed.

114. We should take only that much rice in our hand, which will fill our mouth. We should take food in such a way that the food along with five fingers just enters the mouth. We should not take large quantity and then take it out and keep it on the leaf. If we keep it and take it again, it would be like a dog eating what it has vomited.

115. We should not sit in a row with lot of people and eat food. We should not eat facing others also. If you happen to sit in a row, we have to chant a mantra called Trisuparna. If you do not know it, chant names of god.

116. Every time we put a handful of food in our mouth, we have to say, "Govinda, Govinda". If we do this, it is as if we are observing fast.

117. While eating, we have to take one part of food, one part water and leave other part for air to be healthy.

118. Except while eating, we have to keep the water glass on our right. Water kept on the left, water drunk with left hand, water drunk while standing, drinking of remaining water after another one has drunk it, are equal to drinking toddy.

119. Serving food other than fried food, fruits and sweets, should not be served by hand or iron ladle or by left hand, it is equal to beef.

120. When people are eating in a row, if one man gets up, all the leaves would get tainted (Yechil). In emergency cases draw a line with water on both sides and get up. This makes you different from the row.

121. The water to be taken after food with Manthra "Amthuthabhidhanamasi" (Uthara Abochanam) should also be poured in our hands by somebody else. It can be immediately taken. There is no rule that all people should finish eating food together. Half the water has to be taken and the other half after taking it round the leaf should be poured below the leaf on the right side through the space in between thumb and first finger (Pithru Theertham).

122. The water poured from the tip of fingers is Deva Theertham, What is poured by the bottom of the hand is Brahma Theertham. What is poured to the left side by the middle of the palm is Rishi Theertham. What is poured in between the thumb and first finger is Pithru Theertham.

123. That Uchishta Theertham which we pour on the right side below the leaf after taking food, is supposed to quench the thirst of people in the rourava hell.

124. "Rourave apunye nilaye Padma arpudha nivaasinaam. Arthinaam udakam datham akshayyam upathishtathu" is the manthra that we have to tell when we pour the Uchishtya Theertham below the leaf.

125. When the cooked rice is brought, we have to say "asmakam nithyam asthu yethath" (let me get like this daily). When we finish and get up, we are supposed to say "Anna Datha Sukhi Bhava" (let him, who has given food, live happily).

126. Till we wash our hand after food and do Aachamana, another man who has not washed his hand is not supposed to touch us. If he does, both of us have to take bath. With hand used to take food, we are not supposed to take water in a vessel. Similarly suppose someone gives water with unwashed hand, we should not use it. We are supposed to give water for washing some one's hand only after we do Aachamana.

127. After food, after sitting and doing Aachamana, telling the following prayer if we wipe our eyes, the eye sight will never fade:
Charyathimcha, sukayamaacha, chyavanam sakram aswinou,
Bukthamathre smareth yasthu chakshu thasya na heeyathe.
If immediately after we do this recitation, we remember Charyatha and other sages, Sukanya, Chyavana, Indra and Aswini Devas, then our eye sight will never fade.

128. We should move our hands over our stomach saying the following Manthra, then all the food we have taken would be properly digested:
Agasthya, Agni, padapa analascha, buktham maya annam,
Jarayanthu asesham sukham chame thath parinama sambhavam.
Meaning: "Let Agasthya. fire god and Padapagni digest all the food that I have taken. Let my body be healthy."

129. Immediately after taking food, we have to walk one hundred steps. If we sit or lie down immediately after taking food, there would be diseases of the stomach. If we walk fast or run, our life span would reduce. We will have fear of Yama.

130. Before Uthrabochana, the housewife or those who serve food should enquire whether more food is required. If we do not do that, the blessings which we would get by giving food will vanish and also we will get sin. It is a practice to do like this to the Sradha Brahmin.

131. To the guest, after he eats the food, along with Thamboola, we should give at least a small Dakshina (cash present). Otherwise we would not get the good effect of feeding.

132. As soon as we see an elder, we have to stand and then salute him. For men, we have to chant "Abhivadaye" and then salute. Some people say "Chathusagara paryantham Gobrahmanebhya subham bhavathu (let good happen to all Brahmins for a width of four oceans) and then tell Abhivadaye. Some people do Namaskaram and then tell Abhivadaye. These should be done as per the practice of our family.

133. If we are permitted to touch the elder, then after saluting the elder, we should touch his feet by keeping our hand in a cross fashion. That is we should touch his right feet by our right hand and left feet by left hand. If we are not permitted to touch the elder after saluting him, we should do criss cross touching on floor in front of him.

134. Abhivaadaye, Bhargava, Chyaavana, Aapnavaana, Ourva, Jamadagnya, Pancharsheya pravaran vitha (Srivathsa Gothra) Aapasthambha suthra, Yajur veda shaakha adhyayi, Some deva sarmaa naamaham asmibho - This is a sample Abhivaadaye manthra, You have to fill it up with your Pravara, Gothra, Suthra, Veda and Name. You should not tell Pravaranvitha but Pravaraan Vitha.

135. Pravara saints are the important saints born in the family of Gothra sage. In some Gothras, there are 7 Pravara Rishis, in some 5, in some 3 and in some only one. Accordingly we have to say Saptha Rishaya (7) or Pancha Rishaya (5) orTrya Rishaya (3) or Yeka Rishaya (1). Abhivadahye means, I am introducing myself.

136. In the beginning, all gothras originated from 9 rishis and then they grew to hundreds. The rishi to whose clan we belong to is called Gothra Rishi. People having same gothra are referred to as Sagothra and people having the same rishi in their pravara are called Sapravara. We should not marry from our Gothra or our Pravara.

137. Asmi means, "I am as indicated". Bho is the form of address to elderly people.

138. There are many Suthras like Aasvalaayana, Kousheedhaka, Bodhayana, Bharadwaja, Sathyaashada, Vaikhanasa, Kathyayana, Drahyayana, Jaiminiya etc. Each of those sages have given the method of performing the rituals in a man's life. Those before death are termed as Poorva Prayoga and those after death are called Apara Prayoga.

139. The famous suthras are Aswalayana for Rig Veda, Bodhayana, Aapasthambha, Baradwaaja, Sathyaashaada and Vaikanasa for Krishna Yajurveda, Kathyayana for Shukla Yajurveda and Drahyayana and Jaimineeya for Sama Veda.

140. For the same Veda, many sages have created Suthras. We have to follow that Suthra which was followed by our forefathers. In case of Shika (hair style), Pundra (what we put on our forehead), Sutha and Aacharas of our family and our forefathers have to be followed by us. If we change according to will, we would be committing sin. If we do not get a priest who knows our Suthra, we cannot follow some other Suthra. Suppose without any option, if we are forced to do it, later the same ritual should be performed according to our Suthra.

141. We should without forgetting tell our Veda - Rik Shakha Adhyayi, Yaju Shakha Adhyayi or Sama Shaka Adhyayi.

142. Suppose somebody is named as Sharma, he should tell "Sharma Namaham".

143. The room where delivery has taken place, if it is a mud floor, it should be floored again and if it is any other type of floor, we have to first burn straw in the room and bring a cow inside the room and then sprinkle Punyaaha water. Unless this is done that room cannot be used for any purpose.

144. The Lady who has delivered, on the day she does Panda Sparsam (touching of vessels), she should wear a new Mangala Suthra and take Pancha Gavya. Then only she is eligible to participate in religious and Pithru rituals.

145. On the day when death taint and birth taints go away, the person should take bath in the morning, do all morning rituals and after 8.30 AM, should take bath again, preferably in a pond or river.

146. When death occurs, till Sapindi Karana, a stone is kept in a pit in home (Graha Kunda) and another one in the river bank (Nadhi Kunda). The stones represent the pretha (dead body) of the expired person. The house where Graha Kunda is kept is fully tainted till Sapindi Karana is over.

147. If Graha Kundam is kept in some other place, then by cleaning with cow dung and after sprinkling Punyaha, the house will become pure. People who are living for rent can stay in such a house.

148. When we get tainted, if we are doing Agni Hothra (ceremony of fire), we can take bath, finish the Agni Hothra rituals. But Oupasana and worship should not be done by us. Since they have to be definitely done, we can get them done by someone who does not have taint.

149. Except Sandhya Vandhana, no other daily ritual should be done during the taint period. But Grahana Tharpana, Yekadasi, Sravana Dwadasi and Shiva Rathri should be observed during taint period.

150. If a panchama enters our home, we should throw away all earthen vessels and all others should be washed by cow dung and Punyaha water. We should throw away all cooked food. Only after bringing a cow inside the home and the dust from its feet falls inside, the house would become clean.

151. A pond where a cow enters and is washed is a pure pond. It will not get tainted by any one's touch.

152. In water source used by many, if a cat or a dog falls and dies, we have to remove 100 pots of water from it and then it can be used. If a man dies, the entire water has to be emptied and it should be cleaned by Pancha Gavyam and Punyaaham.

153. The feet of a Brahmin is holy. So the house where the dust from their feet falls is pure. Since Jyeshta Devi lives on the back side of a Brahmin, we should never make them sit on a floor but either on a mat or a plank.

154. The back side and legs of a cow are pure. So they have to be seen. Goddess Lakshmi lives there. The face of a cow and what is smelled by the face or dirty. The cow licked the flesh from the body of sage Dadichi and because of that got a portion in the fire sacrifice. So he cursed that front portion of a cow will be dirty and cursed.

155. There was a sage called Behnabha who used to grow cows and live by licking the foam on the calf’s mouth after it has drunk milk. In the fire sacrifice conducted by King Ranthi Deva, they wanted to leave their body and become cows with pretty horns. When he refused, they killed him by their horn. Kamadhenu got angry and cursed that their face will become dirty and cursed.

156. We can worship the back side of a cow and decorate it. Kalidasa says King Dileepa worshipped the middle portion between the horns where lord Shiva dances. But the place for worship is the back side. After worshipping the back side, the front side can be worshipped.

157. Worship of cow, service to cow offering grass and paddy straw to cow, scratching the neck of the cow, constructing a stone pillar so that the cow can rub itself on that and offering grazing land to the cow are blessed deeds and gets us reward.

158. Once the husband knows clearly that his wife is in the family way, he has to do penance. During that penance he should not take Dhanam. He should neither shave nor cut his hair. He should not go as a Brahmin in a Sradham. He should not take bath in the sea. He should not go on a pilgrimage. He should not go to the cremation ground nor should he carry a corpse. If he does not observe these, he would accumulate sins and growth of baby would be affected.

159. To get rid of sins, we should do Kruchram. It means give punishment to the body. That is we should punish the body by starving and also repent.

160. Those who cannot fast, instead of one Prajapathya Kruchra should chant Gayathri ten thousand times. If even that is not possible, he should do 200 Pranayama. If even that is not possible he should do 1000 homams. If even that is not possible, he should read from the Vedas thirty times and people who cannot even do that, should feed 60 or 24 or 12 Brahmins and people who cannot even do that, should give Gomoolya (Rs. 3 and 15 Paise). In Tamil Nadu a Kruchra is about 40 Paisa.

161. Suppose we have to become eligible to perform Karma (ritual), we should give as gift 7 or 6 or 3 Kruchras.

162. Suppose a person dies, we have to remove the body only after one Yaamam (about 3 hours). We should not keep it more than 3 Yaamams (Nine hours). If we keep it, it would become paryushitham that is old.

163. If a person dies in day time, his body should be cremated within 3 Yamams (9 hours) but if it is night, the body can be cremated within Nine Nazhigai (One Nazhigai is 24 minutes), It is believed that the soul of the dead man is being taken with great speed by the assistants of God Yama.

164. If we keep the body for a long time either in the day time or night, Parayooshitha Dosha will set in. To remove this, we have to give away three Kruchrams and wash the body with Panchagavyam and then again wash it with pure water and then cremate it.

165. It is believed that, while cremating, we are doing Homa of the body in fire. Since it is not possible to lift it and do Homa, we set up a pyre, place the body on it and set fire to it.

166. Dying in Dakshinayayana, Krishna Paksha, at night and on the cot are each a dosha. We have to give one Kruchram each for each of these doshas and then only cremate the body. Once a person's soul was taken by mistake to Yama Loka by the assistants of Yama since they brought the wrong soul, Yama, the Lord asked them to take back the soul and return it to its body. They have the power to do that and so we should not cremate the body in a hurry.

167. What all things need to be done before a person dies? Death would come definitely to everyone. Suppose we know that our death is nearing, we should do Prayachitha (redemption). That would remove the sins committed till then and make death occur without much pain. This is an important ritual and should be done.

168. If the man is about to die and has sufficient strength, he should take bath, do Sankalpa and do various Dhanas. If he does not have strength, he can instruct his son to do it.

169. If after doing this, suppose he lives for another 3 more days, he has to do this Prayaschitha again. It is possible that he might have sinned again by his mind or body. Even if we do not do any fresh sin, since he was not performing daily rituals like Sandhya Vandhana due to his health, he would be committing some sin.

170. The Dhanam that we do ourselves before our death is our great friend and so we have to do such rituals which would help us in the other world.

171. If we are not able to do it, then we can get it done by our sons. We should make the dying man see Thulasi leaves, great Brahmins, we should murmur in the dying person's ear "Rama, Rama". If possible, we can ask them to chant "Rama, Rama". We should sprinkle Ganga water on our body and also drink it.

172. Once we know that the person is about to die soon, we should not make him lie on a cot or bed. In the hall we can spread Durba and make that person lie down on that. King Parikshtith attained hell because he died on a cot. Devi Bhagwatha says that Janamejaya made Devi Bhagawatha Navaha (reading Devi Bhagwatham in 9 days) and sent his father to heaven.

173. If you have done only Punya (blessed deeds) then our soul will leave our body easily. The soul will leave by the holes in the mouth. The soul of sinners would leave the body very slowly after troubling them a lot. The soul would leave the body through the hole for stools and urine. For realized souls, the soul will break their heads and go out via Sushumna Nadi. Mahabharatha says that Drona's soul left that way.

174. What is the going of the Soul? Soul, which is the complete mingling of mind, 5 Jnanendriyas, 5 Karmendriyas, and five airs of the body (called Prana) and the past karma that we have done becomes like a spark of fire and goes from our body to other worlds. For those who have got salvation, it will all get mixed here itself. In case of those who learn Vedas, it will go to the world of Brahma, read Vedas there and at last merge with Brahma. Those for whom all the 48 Samsakaras are done or those who give as charity things like earth, gold, cow etc., can go to Brahma Loka but because they do not have knowledge of Vedantha they have to return back.

175. What is the labored breath with effort at the time of death? Normally the udana at the neck will prevent other Vayus (airs) from going out of the body. Till he gives way, the other airs of the body try to come out and when prevented, make one more trial, till Udana allows it to go out. People understand from this that the person is about to die.

176. How does the soul leave the body? Prana Vayu in the heart, Apana Vayu in our ears, Udana Vayu in the neck, Samana Vayu in the belly button and Vyana Vayu is all over the body are called Pancha Vayu. Before the soul leaves the body, Vyana from the blood comes to the heart. This causes very great pain. Till Apana and Samana come to the heart, the tubes carrying stool and urine would be closed and digestion is completely stopped,

177. When will milk not go inside the body? When Udana opens the way to Prana to go out, if we pour milk or water in the mouth, it will not go in but come out. Before and after that the milk will go in. Since all the powers of the organs go and merge in the mind, we will not be able to see or hear or smell and the skin will be without any feeling.

178. Since soul is a shining entity, till it is there in the body, the chest would be warm. Right from the beginning of Vyana going and other airs going out, those areas would lose their warmth. Even if heart beat is not there and even if none of the senses are working, we cannot conclude that a person is dead. Pouring milk in the mouth, keeping cotton in the nose are the normal tests. Again these are not the ultimate symptoms of death. Some people grind pepper or clove and apply on that person’s eye. If there is no soul, water will not come out of the eye. This is not a good method of testing.

179. Is there any other body? Some people believe that the soul catches hold of another body and then only leaves our body. They believe that the soul does not go to any other world and there is no need to observe sradham (Death anniversary) for them. It is like a person does not like to leave the house where he has lived for long, the soul also does not like to leave the body. So the assistants of Yama show the picture of another body and then attracted by it, the soul leaves the body and that soul is taken to the world of Yama.

180. Soul never dies. Only body dies. When we are alive, youth goes and middle age sets in and later old age sets in and each of these changes is like throwing out the old dress and wearing a new dress. Death also is like that. It is only a change of new cloths discarding old ones. This is mentioned in Gita.

181. There are modes for the soul to go. They are called, the northern way and the southern way. These are also called the way of devas or way of manes or also called the way of devotees and the way of bad souls. Those who go by northern way are blessed as per the good deeds done by them and they will go via world of Yama to Heaven or Mahar Lokam, Jana Lokam, Thapo Lokam or Brahma Lokam. Sinners only go to Yama Loka.

182. Those who go to Brahma Loka will die in Utharayana (January 15th to July 15th), in the waxing period of moon in day time. It will take one to God of Utharayana or God of the Year and from there he will go to Brahma Loka. This is the path to those who become experts in the knowledge of Upanishads.

183 Those who die in the southern way will die at night and the god of night will take them to the god of the waning moon, who will take him to God of Dakshinayana and further to the God of the year and further to land of Yama or to heaven. This also is called the Dhooma Marga.

184. Does it mean that all those who die in Dakshinayana and in Krishna Paksha will go to Yama Loka and Swarga? Suppose a person is a great devotee of god, or has done innumerable charities, will he not go to Brahmaloka. This is not true that all of them go to the heaven as your placement depends only on the sins and blessed deeds that you have done.

185. Mahabharatha says that Bhishma wanted to die only in Utharayana and postponed his death. Because of this we should not assume that only those who die in Uttarayana would go to heaven. It is a holy time and his father had given him a boon that he can choose his time of death. So he did this to use that boon.

186. Cleanliness is a divine concept. We should keep our body, words, mind, the cloths that we wear, the food we eat and the articles that we handle as clean. Achara means all these aspects being clean. If they are unclean then it is anachara.

187. If a woman in her periods or a chandala comes near us, we have to take bath along with the cloths that we wear. Then only we will become clean. If Sudras, tainted Brahmins, Brahmins who had haircut, dog or crow touches us then we have to take bath along with cloths.

188. If women in periods or Chandalas touch us or if we touch a dead body or if we carry a dead body, we have to take bath with our cloths. Males should then change their sacred thread. Then only they would become fit to do their rituals.

189. If our stool or urine or somebody else's stool or urine falls upon us, we have to take bath along with the cloth that we wear.

191. Great people believe that even though silk is got by troubling a worm, it is clean. They also say that the milk we get after the calf feeds on the cow is again clean.

192. Like that the honey got after it is drunk by the bees is also considered as pure. It is fit for anointing of God.

193. Though a peepal tree is grown from the seeds which are eaten by the crow, it is also considered as clean.

194. If we wash silk cloths or get it washed by washer man then it loses its purity. To remove dirt from it, it has to be washed using the gruel of green gram dhal on Amavasya or Dwadasi days.

195. Doing Sradha wearing a white silk or giving white silk to a Brahmin on a Sradha day is considered as great.

196. Pancha Gavya is made of mixing five things got out of a cow. A woman after delivery becomes pure only after she takes Pancha Gavya after the taint period is over.

197. Pancha Gavya is the mixture of cow's urine (one palam - 60 Gms.), half thumb equivalent of cow dung, about half a litter of milk, 60 Gms. of ghee (clarified butter), 60 Gms. of durba water. There is a mantra to mix them.

198. The Mantra for making Pancha Gavya:
Yath thwak asthikadham papam, dehe thishtathji maamake, prasanam Pancha gavyasya dahathu Agneer iva indhanam.
Meaning: Let the sin adhering to my skin and bones or my body be burnt by Pancha Gavya like a fire wood is burnt by you fire.

199. Some information about Sradham: Sradham means that which we perform with sincerity and belief. Some people call it Thidhi and Divasam. Calling it Thevasam or Srardham is wrong. It should be called as Divasam or Sradham.

200. This has to be done in the month that a person died, in the paksha that he died and on the thidhi that he died. Because of this it is termed as Prathyabdhika Sradham.

201. One day is divided into 60 Nazhigas (24 minutes), the thirty Nazhigai of day time is divided in to 5 portions of 6 Nazhigai each. Each of these division has a name:
1. First 6 Nazhigas - Pratha Kala,
2. 7th to 12th Nazhiga - Sangava Kala
3. 13th to 18th Nazhika - Madyahneeka Kala
4. 19th to 24th Nazhigai - Aparanna
5. 25th to 30th Nazhigai - Sayanna.

202. The thidhi of death for sradha should be there up to Aparahna. Suppose the thidhi comes two days in a month, in Aparannaha, sradha should be performed on the day when it is more in Aparanha.

203. If the thidi comes twice in a month, normally Sradha should be done on the later date. But if the later thidhi has Sankramana dosha, then it should be done on the former thidhi. If in both cases, such dosha is there, it should be performed only on the later date.

204. In the months of Chithirai, Vaikasi, Aadi, Aavani, Iypasi, Karthigai and Masi, if the month begins in the Madhyahnika Kala, Sankaramana dosha is there. In the months of Aani, Purattasi, Margazhi, Thai and Panguni this dosham is not there.

205. If there is only one thidhi in the month, we need not bother about Sankramana Dosham. Sradha can be done on that day.

206. In the night if Sankramana is there within 15 Nazhikais, then thidhi has Sankramana Sosha. If Sankramana at night is after that, then there is no dosham.

207. Apranna Kaala is further divided in to three equal parts called Gandahrva period, Kuthaba period and Rouhineeya period. If the thithi occurs on two days and if it is not fully in Aparanna Kaala, it would be there in the Kuthabha Kala of the next day. So Sradha should be done only on the next day.

208. If the thidhi does not occur in a month, in the previous Chandramana month if there is the proper Thidhi, we should perform the Sradha on that day. If Thidhi is not there in Chandramana also, Sradha should be performed in the next month.

209. If the mother's and father's Sradha comes on the same day or both get postponed due to death or birth taint, then on same day father's Sradha should be performed first and next mother's Sradha should be done. The same cooked food can be used for both.

210. If Mother's or father's Sradha is postponed due to death or birth taint, then they can be performed on the day that the taint leaves.

211. If Lunar of solar eclipse comes on the Sradha day, you should observe fast on that day and perform Sradha the next day only.

212. If for some reason you forget to perform the Sradha, from the day you realize it, you should observe fast, observe Krucharacharanam and then perform Sradha the next day. This is the opinion of some saints.

213. For some other reason, we are not able to perform Sradha or suppose we do not know which thidhi it has to be performed, it can be done on the Krishna Paksha Ekadasi or Amavasya.

Some Rules regarding Sradha:

214. Those who perform Sradha should not eat food of outsiders, should not shave or have a haircut, should not take oil bath and should not make love for one month (some say 15days) before the Sradham.

215. If there are other problems these should not be done at least for one week before the Sradha. These should never be done for three days prior of Sradha.

216. Whatever may be the circumstance or reason they should not be indulged on the day before the sradha. If you do it, our Pithrus (manes) will curse us and we will lose our wife, children and Wealth.

217. A householder is supposed to do Sradha in Oupasanagni. Only if your wife is there, Oupasanagni can be maintained. So Sradha should be performed only in the place where wife is there. If wife dies Vidura Oupasanam can be maintained.

218. At least in the Paksha when the Sradha falls or at least three days before Sradha Oupasana should be started and on both times of the day. At least it should be done in the morning of the Sradha.

219. It is good, if we can do Koosmanda Homa before the Sradha. It removes sins like abortion, eating in unknown places etc. The pithrus will accept the Sradha only if we get rid of our sins before doing Sradha.

220. Even if we are not able to Koosmanda Homan, we can keep ourselves pure by Drinking Panchagavya, bath in the sea (if it is Parva Kala) bathe in sacred rivers and then do Sradha.

221. The day before Sradha, on Sradha day and the day after Sradha, we should not clean our teeth using stick or brush. We can clean it by rubbing softly by our fingers and gargling. This is because if you take out the water from the gums, we will immediately feel hungry.

222. Before Sradha, worship of Gods, worship of guests, special bathing and Dhanam should not be done. Dhanam should also be not taken. Even those who do not take early morning bath or Oupasanam should take bath early, do Sandhya Vandanam and perform Oupasanam and take bath on the Sradha day morning. Only sick people are permitted to do only one bath. Not adhering to this will invite curses from Pitrhrus.

223. The man who does the Sradha should personally invite the Brahmins participating on the night before they have taken their food. If we do not do it, several sorrows will befall us. Normally we invite three Brahmins - one representing Visva Seva, one representing Pithru, Pithamaha Prapithamaha or Mathru, Pithamaha, Prapithamaha and third one representing Lord Vishnu. Some people do not call a Brahmin to represent Vishnu but only put a leaf and serve all items there. We should always follow our forefathers in any such issues.

223. The qualification for a Brahmin to participate in a Sradha: One who has read Vedas, Vedanthi, Yogi, one who performs Agni Hothra (the best), Sama Vedhi, Shukla Yajurvedi, one who does not go against one's Dharma. One who knows Dharma Sasthras, one who is peaceful, one who is born in a family of Vedic pundits even if he does not chant Vedas and one who does Gayathri Japa without fail. Only these can participate in Sradha.

225. If you do not get Brahmins, father-in-law, uncle, guru, daughter's son and the priest who helps us in performing Sradha can represent in the Sradha. Some Rishis say that daughter's son has a special place in this.

226. Who should not represent? Those who do not know Vedas, those who do not have wife or son, one who works under people lower than him, one who works in government, priests of Sudras, people who do not observe Vruthas, people affected by leucoderma, leprosy, people with Damaged nails or damaged teeth, people who steal, atheists, eunuchs, those who drink alcohol, people who earn money by singing or playing musical instruments, people who have extra limbs like fingers, people who want to be recommended for eating in Sradha, people who hate Vedas and Brahmins, people who find fault with Vedas and Brahmins, those who do not do Sradha of their parents, people who have returned after crossing the sea, people who have taken food in a Sradha in the previous day, people who accept sinful Dhanas should not take part in the Sradha as Brahmins.

227. If we accept wrong type of people in Sradha, what we give will not reach the pithrus. If a man, who has not learnt Vedas, eats in a Sradha, when that Brahmin and the performer reaches hell they will be asked to take as many iron balls as much as the number of hands of food taken by that Brahmin.

228. If we do not get those who have learnt Vedas, at least we should take those who chant Gayathri, the mother of Vedas properly. It is a sin to employ Brahmins, who are not Brahmins any more.

229. We have to first show hospitality to Visva Devas first and then only to the one who represents the Pithrus. Like that, when we send them after the Sradham, first we have to bid farewell to Brahmin who represented Visva Devas.

230. When we are washing the feet of Sradha Brahmins, on the northern side, we have to make a square of 12" with cow dung.

231. On its southern side, we have to make a circle of 12" diameter for washing feet of the Brahmin representing Pithrus again by cow dung.

232. In between these, there should be at least a distance of 6". We have to take care that the water used to wash the feet of one Brahmin should not touch the water used to wash the feet of the other Brahmin. Some people either put a wet cloth or rice husk in between them.

233. Wearing the Pavithra, you have to worship with rice Deva Mandala (square) and with Yellu (gingili) the Pithru Mandala. While we are washing the feet of the Brahmin, we should remove the Pavithra and keep it on our ears. In Deva Kunda, put the Durba on the eastern side and in Pithru Kunda, Durba should be put on the southern side.

234. We have to apply ghee on the sole of the feet and thumb of the Brahmin chanting "Shukramasi". After washing our hand saying "Kandathvaaram", we have to apply cow dung.

235. Brahmana should face the east and the one who does Sradha should stand facing the West. The water should be poured by the wife and using both hands starting from the south, we have to wash both the feet.

236-238. We have to wash their feet chanting the following three slokas:

1. Samastha sampath samvapthi hethaa,
Samudhitha aapathkula dhooma kethava,
Apara samsara samudhra sethava,
Punanthu maam Brahmana pada pamsava.
This means that let the dust of the feet of the Brahmin, which can give me all wealth, which removes all the dangers faced by me and which is like a bridge helping me to cross the shore less sea of Samsara, make me pure.

2. Aadhi vyadhi haram nrunaanam, Dukha daridrya nasanam,
Sri Pushi keerthitham Vandhe Vipra sri Pada pankajam.
Meaning: I salute the lotus like feet of the Brahmin, which removes the diseases of the mind and body and which grants me wealth, health and fame.

3. "Viprougha darasanath Sathya ksheeyanthe paparasaya,
Vandanath mangalavaapthi, archanath achyutham padam.
Meaning: Seeing a crowd of Brahmins, the crowd of sins would fly away. If we salute them auspiciousness will come and if we worship them we will get salvation.

239. After we propitiate the Viswa Deva in the Sradha, after telling the manthra, we should put the rice from his right leg to head, from bottom to top. We should wear the sacred thread over the left shoulder.

240. When we do the same thing for Pithrus, we should put the sacred thread on right shoulder (Pracheena Vidhi) and put the gingili from head to his left leg from top to bottom.

241. People who are rich should buy white silk dhothi every year and give to the Brahmins or at least give a Dhothi with Silk Zari border. We have to either give three or two or at least one Vasthra to the Brahmin. Giving a cloth without border is not that good.

242. If the cloth with a black border is given, then the pithrus would go to hell and so they will curse us. So we should always give cloth with red border. That which has been washed by a washer man or that which was worn by someone else should not be given. New cloth should be bought and on the morning of Sradha, after we take bath, it should be dipped in water and then dried to become eligible to be given as Dhana,

243. If we are not able to get suitable cloth, we can give its cost as dakshina. If we cannot afford it, we can give a new sacred thread instead of cloth along with some cash present.

244. If we give the sacred thread before the start of the Sradha and they wear it, that sacred thread can be retained. But if we give after they are propitiated, then they will have to change it the next day.

245. Before we start the Sradha, we have to give the Brahmins oil. It is a hospitality shown to the manes and for the stool to go out easily for the Brahmana. After he takes bath and wears the madi (untainted cloth), the Sradham starts.

246. Similarly for cleaning the mind of Brahmin, Ellurundai (sesame jaggery balls) is to be given and to make his language pure, Thamboola is offered. Some people do not offer this because they think that nothing should be eaten before the Sradha. The general rule is to follow the customs followed by our family.

247. Aachamana should be done only after removing the Pavithram from hand. Similarly the feet of the Brahmins should not be washed wearing the Pavithram. We should not apply sandal paste wearing Pavithram. At those times, Pavithram should be kept above left ear.

248. The feet of the Brahmin should be washed only up to the ankle.

249. The cooking for Sradha should be done using ghee. Some sages say that we should not use gingili oil and coconut oil. But since pure cow ghee is not easily available and since we use gingili in the Sradha, learned people say that cooking can be done in good Gingili oil.

250. Since some sages say that coconut can be used in Sradha, some people say that coconut oil also can be used. We should not add anything new to the family usage.

251. The food ritually offered to the pithrus can be taken only by those clan members who have ten day taint from events in our family. Even those who have three day taint should not eat it. Some people say that those fried in oil is okay to be taken by any one. Others if they take the food offered to Pithrus should do redemption before doing their usual rituals.

252. The remains of food offered during Yekodishta should not be even eaten by ten day taint clan members.

253. Black gram, black gingili, wheat, green gram dhal, jaggery, khandasari sugar, cumin, pepper and samba rice can be used for cooking in Sradha.

254. Some people say coconut, mustard, snake gourd, wood apple and cucumber can also be used for cooking. Some people do not add these. So do according to family custom.

255. Ash Gourds, chilies and asafetida are banned from being used during Sradha. Ash Gourd grew out of an asura called Kooshmanda, Chillies came from outside the country and Asafetida is a resin from a tree and is supposed to be the result of the sin of Indra.

256. Perandai (Cissus), curry leaf, bitter gourd, plantain, mango, jamun fruit, lemon, colacasia, elephant foot yam, lime, sweet potato, cluster beans, lab lab beans and jack fruit can be used during Sradha. Among these black gram, honey and jack fruit are greatly liked by Pithrus.

257. The following should not be used for Sradha: cow pea, horse gram, Bengal gram, tur dhal (thuvarai paruppu), ash gourd, bottle gourd, drum stick, curd made of buffalo milk, asafetida, pomegranate should not be used.

258. Pithrus are peace loving people and so we should use all material which are Sathvika in nature only.

259. On Sradha day no one except those born in our caste can take food in our house. Some people due to pity or due to their affection offer food for the Panchamas and Shudras on that day, That is wrong and Pithrus will curse us if we do it.

260. It is known that the great savant Sridhara Ayyaval fed a Panchama on the Sradha day and that Ganges water came in the well of his house to purify him.

261. He was not the one who used to go against shastras, On all days he used to feed everybody. God who wanted to test him and prove his greatness to the world came as a guest in his house. If you can make Ganges come in your well, you can also do it.

262. That day vessels have to be washed by us, the place has to be washed by us, cloths has to be washed and dried, cooking also has to be done by us without drinking coffee and so many other rules should be observed on a Sradha day. If these are all not observed, performing Sradha is a waste.

263. In the Sradha, maternal grandfather, uncle, disciple, daughter's son, nephew and son in law should not represent as Brahmins in a Sradha.

264. Due to certain sages permitting and due to practice, daughter's son can be permitted.

265. On Sradha day and previous day, the one who does Sradha should not clean his teeth with stick or brush, should not walk a distance and should not carry a burden. We should not fix and invite a Brahmin and later cancel it. We should not keep sandal paste on vessels made of mud.

266. Cooked Dhal, Payasam and Ghee should be served on the right side of the leaf. Dhal and Ghee should be kept on a separate leaf piece in the Dhonnai (leaf cup). All preparations where salt is added should be kept on the front leaf. In sradham, food is normally served on two leaves (one front leaf and the second leaf kept slightly behind on the first leaf).

267. In the Parvana Sradha, Viswedevas called Puroorava and Aardrava should be worshipped. In Mahalaya Sradha, Viswe Devas called Thuru and Ruche should be worshipped. In Nandhi Sradha, Viswedevas Sathya and Vasu should be worshipped. In Spindikarana, Viswedevas called Kala Kamuka should be worshipped.

268. In Yekodishta, Masika, Sapindikarana, Nandi Sradha and Gaya Sradha, Abisravana (Manthras when Brahmins are taking food) should not be there.

269. The one who is selected as Viswedeva should wash his hand only after the one who represents Pithrus washes his hand. The same thing is true of Aachamana.

270. When the Brahmins are eating, if the food being eaten by one falls on other man's leaf, the Brahmins should touch the leaf further. After removing the leaf and cleaning that place with cow dung, fresh leaf should be again put in another place and food should be served again.

271. If by the time we send away the Brahmins, after taking food, fire is put out. That day we have to starve and redo the Sradha next day.

272. If the pinda meant for the crow is eaten by some other animal before crow touches it or if is eaten by a dog or if Sudras see it, we have to starve that day and do the Sradha again the next day.

273. The rice and other preparations should be served to the Brahmins without favoritism. But Dakshina can be given according to the capacity of those Brahmins. But good people do not do that.

274. After Pinda Pradhana, few rice that is remaining should be eaten after saying Manthra. After eating it, worship of Viswedevas can be done. Some people only smell it. Do as per your family custom.

275. People who do not have sons, if they give the center Pinda to their wife saying the Manthra abhandhava, then they will get a son. Other Pindas should be put in fire or water.

276. The vessels used to prepare food for sradha should not be cleaned by Sudras. The leaf used by Brahmins to take food should be buried in the soil. If Sudras touch that leaf or Dog eats from it, then the entire Sradha is a waste.

277. The leaf used by Brahmins to take food should be removed before they start to tell the blessing Manthras (Swasthi Vachana). The area should be cleaned after Pinda Pradhana.

278. The Brahmins should not touch each other till the Sradha is over. They should eat silently. While eating food, suppose they say the food is good, the Pithrus will not eat that food.

279. Before the leaf of Viswedeva, you have to draw a line by water and spread cooked rice over it and then pour water over it. This is called Vikiranna.

280. "Asomabacvhaye deva Yagna bhaga vivarjitha, thesham annam prathaasyami vikiram Vaiswa devakam" is the manthra for offering Vikiranna. This means I offer this Vikiranna to devas who do not get share in the Yagna, because they have not drunken Soma Pana."

281. In front of the leaf of Pithrus, then we have to draw a line with Gingelly mixed water, keep cooked rice on them and pour Gingelly water over it. This is called "Paithruka Vikirannam."

282. Asamskrutha prameethaa ye thaginyoya, kula sthriya dasayami thebhyo vikirannam thabayaschu paithrukam" is the mantha which means that I offer this to Pithrus for whom death ritual has not been done and those Kula Sthree (women) who sacrifice.

283. After keeping the Vikiranna, we have to keep our Pavithram on our ears and then do two aachamanams, keep Dhurba facing south and over that keep Vayasa Pinda (Pinda for crow) Since this Pinda is offered to the crows, it is called Vayasa Pinda.

284. "Ye agni daktha, Ye anagni daktha, yevaa jathaa kule mama, bhoomou dathena Piindena trupathayaanthu Param gathim" is the manthra to be recited and this would mean "To all those who are born in my clan, to those who were burnt by fire and to those who were not burnt by fire, let them get satisfied by the Pinda that I am keeping on the earth."

285. The vayasa pindam should be kept on earth, in a place where dogs would not come and should not be visible to other caste people. First we have to pour water, put the sacred thread on the right shoulder and then call the crow. Once it seems Lord Yama took the form of a crow and then he told his devotee that if Pinda is given to the crow, then Yama will not trouble our ancestors. And so offering Vayasa Pindam in Sradha and daily offering cooked rice to crow before we eat is a must.

286. When Bhishma and Sri Rama were offering Sradha Pindam, it seems their manes came and received it. But they said, since the Mantra says, we are keeping on earth, we would not receive from you, but take it from earth. So we also should follow rules and believe that our Pithrus are present during the Sradha.

287. If the crow takes the Pinda facing east, our wealth will increase, if it faces south, we would get ill. If it takes facing west, we would go to some other town. If it takes facing north, our life span will increase. If it does not take it at all, sorrows will increase.

288. We should address the Pithrus and ask them, "Anna seshai kim Kareyatham?" (what to do with the food that is remaining?). They will say "Ishtais saha bhojyatham" (eat it with people who love you). Because of this mantra, some people say that the food can be shared with friends. This is wrong.

289. Since Sastra says that only our clan members who have ten day taint, can eat that food and learned people also follow that custom, we also should do like that. We should not interpret that we are disobeying the order of Pithrus, but take it as the order is forever and refers all the food that remains, which should be shared with friends.

290. Anna sesham indicates only cooked food and ishta are those clan members with ten day taint whom we like. This should be strictly followed.

291. If Sradha comes on Ekadasi day, the one who performs Sradha, his wife and children should definitely take food on that day. Sradha which comes only yearly once is much more important than Ekadasi which comes twice a month. Pithru Sesha will bless us and also give us the effect of observing Ekadasi.

292. If widows perform Sradha for their husband on Ekadasi day, they have to eat the Sradha Sesham. If they think that Ekadasi is more important and do not take food, Pithrus would be made to eat dirty food.

293. If Sradha for father or brother comes on Ekadasi day, ladies with husbands living (Sumangali) can eat the Pithru Sesham but a widow should not eat it.

294. The Sradha Sesha of father in law and uncle can be eaten by son-in-law and nephew respectively.

295. Fruits, milk, curd, butter milk, ghee, honey and uncooked vegetables do not have Pithru Sesha,

296. If a Brahmin eats Brahmanartham, immediately he should wash his feet, do Aachamana and chant Gayathri ten times and then drink water. If he does not do it, he is not eligible for performing Sandhya Vandana that evening.

297. Even if he does that, he is not eligible to perform Oupasana that evening. He can get it done by his disciple or wife. He cannot go to the temple that day.

298. After giving Dakshina to the priest on Sradha day we say,
"Datharo nobhi varthanthaam Veda santhathi revana,
Sradha cha mavyapakath bahu deyancha nosthu."
Meaning "Oh Pithrus, let my Wealth children and Vedas grow. Let Sradha (sincerity) not go away from me. Let me get sufficient Wealth to do Dhana.

299. "Annancha no bahu bhavethj, athitheekuncha labhemahi,
Yachitharascha nassanthu masdaya kishma kanchanaa."
Meaning "Let me get lot of material fit to be eaten. Let lot of guests come to my house. Let beggars come to me. Do not make me beg with other people."

300. The Brahmins who represent Viswedevas and Pithrus, slightly modify these slokas and bless us using them.

301. When Brahmanas, after food, take leave of us, we should go round them, talk some hospitable words and also greet them in their mother tongue.

302. "Pathra saakhadhi dhanena klesithaa yooya mithrucha,
Thath klesa jatham chithethu vismruthya kshanthu marhana."
Meaning "I troubled you, fit for great hospitality, by offering you leafy vegetables, please do not keep that in mind, forget it and pardon me".

303. Paraheni Tharpanam This should be done the next day of Sradha in the early morning and not immediately after Sradha on the same day.

304. Some people do it after Pinda Pradhanam. This is not correct. If someone takes food, offering them water after some time, is only proper. After feeding them on Sradha day, we should offer water in the form of Paraheni Tharpanam only on next day. If you do it on the same day, it looks like we are giving food to Pithrus and ordering them to immediately take water as we do not have time.

305. Sasthra are the orders of God and we have to follow it. We should not find fault with it. In some type of Sradhas there is no Partaheni Tharpanam. In some Sastras, it asks us to immediately do it and in some cases it asks us to do it the next day.

306. What are those Sradhas where Paraheni Tharpanam is not there? If father is alive and mother is no more, in the Sradha done to mother, there is no Paraheni Tharpanam. In case of Sapindikarana Sradham, Anumasika Sradham and Nandhi sradham, there is no Paraheni Tharpanam.

307. What are those occasions where Paraheni Tharpana should be done immediately? Except in case of Sradha for mother and father and in case of Sakrunmalaya Sradham, in all other cases Paraheni Tharpanam should be done immediately. We should get up at 4 A.M. of the next day (Brahma Muhurtham), wash our hands and legs, gargle, take bath and then do Paraheni Tharpanam. Then we have to clean our teeth, take bath again and do the morning ablations.

308. If we do not get up at proper time and the dawn is over, then only after finishing Sandhya Vandanam, the tharpanam should be done. By that time if we are not clean, then we have to take bath and do the Tharpanam.

309. Can we clean our teeth on Sradha day? Sasthra says that without washing teeth, without answering calls of nature and without taking bath, no ritual should be performed. Same Sasthra says that we should not clean our teeth on Sradha day. Is this not contradictory?

310. But if we massage the gums and teeth gently and gargle, our mouth would become clean. If we do it hard, due to the gums getting dry, we will feel immediately hungry.

311. Normally in Amavasya and other Tharpanas, Tharpana is done to mothers side also (maternal grandparents, maternal great grandparents and one more generation). But in Parheni Tharpanam, it is given to only our clan and not to mother's clan.

312. Apart from the Tharpana we do on Sradha days, Tharpana done during Ardhodhaya and Mahodaya periods and Tharpana done in sacred rivers, a house holder is supposed to do 96 tharpanas in a year. It is termed as Shannavathi Sradha / Tharpana.

313. In the Shannavathi Tharpanas 12 Month beginnings, 12 Amavasyas, and 16 Mahalaya days are included.

314. On a single day, we are not supposed to do two Tharpanas. When people do on all 16 days of Mahalaya on the Amavasys day in Mahalaya Paksha, they have to do two Tharpanas.

315. If Sankaramana, Amavasya Ardhodhaya and Mahodhaya come together on the same day we have to only do Ardhodhaya or Mahodhaya Tharpanams.

316. Those who do Tharpana on all 12 Sankramana days, if Sankramana comes along with Amavasya, on the two Ayana days, and two Vishu days, First Sankaramana Tharpana should be performed and then Amavasya Tharpana should be performed. In all other 8 sankramana days, if Amavasya comes, we need to do only one Tharpana.

317. After the property is divided between brothers, each of them has to do Sradha separately.

318. After property is divided, Sradha should be done separately. But if father is no more and mother is alive, yhe Sradha has to be done in the place she lives. If mother and children live separately, the mother should feed two Brahmins.

319. If there is no property to divide, if the brothers are living separately then also they should do Sradha separately. If they happen to be in the same place, they should employ different set of Brahmins, separately cook rice and Payasam and using all other cooked things commonly and do the Sradha. They have to do Homa separately.

320. Like this Tharpana also has to be done separately by the brothers. When many people individually do Tharpana and Sradha, the pithrus become very happy and bless them all.

321. Sasthra says that Nandhi Sradha should be performed in case of Samskaras like Nama Karanam, Yagnopaveetha Dharanam etc.

322. Special Aacharas for ladies:
1. You should not be without the thilakam on forehead even for a minute.
2. You should not scratch your head with both hands.
3. You should not break ash gourd.
4. Pregnant women should not break coconuts. They should not be in the place where coconut is broken.
5. It is a great sin to prevent husband and wife from joining together. If somebody prevents their being together, they will become widows for 21 generations.
6. We should not clean the home with a broom stick at night. Even if we sweep, that trash should not be put in the street at night. We should not gather and heap trash. If we do it, god will prevent us from being with our near and dear ones on important days like marriage.
7. You should get up very early morning, sprinkle cow dung water in the courtyard and draw Rangoli. If they do not do it, in the next birth they will be born as very poor people.
8. As soon as leaf is spread to eat, the ladies should draw a square below the leaf with cow dung water.
9. Cooked vegetables or cooked rice should not be served with hand. If done it is equivalent to beef.
10. Any charity without permission of the husband, will not lead to any result. If you undertake fast without his permission, his lifespan would be reduced by one day.
11. Never say any particular item is not there; but say, please buy that.
12. You should not cry and shed tears for anything. Wealth will not stay in the house where a woman sheds tears.
13. While serving food, after serving one person, the remaining should not be served to the next person. If you serve with a ladle this problem is not there. i.e., this rule is not applicable to food being served with ladle.
14. After curd rice is eaten, we have to enquire once more whether more rice is needed by any one.
15. Ladies should not sit or walk without tying their hair.
16. If they get angry, they should not use harsh words.
17. Putting Kumkumam would give long life to husband.
18. Protecting of virtue and behavior according to rituals would increase life span of husband.

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